Washington Heights, Manhattan

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Washington Heights seen from the west tower of the George Washington Bridge. Note Little Red Lighthouse at base of east tower.

Washington Heights is a New York City neighborhood in the northern reaches of the borough of Manhattan. It is named for Fort Washington, a fortification constructed at the highest point on Manhattan island by Continental Army troops during the American Revolutionary War, to defend the area from the British forces. Washington Heights borders Harlem to the South, along 155th street, Inwood to the North along Dyckman Street, the Hudson River to the West and Harlem River to the East.

Contents

Geography

Washington Heights is on the high ridge in Upper Manhattan that rises steeply north of the narrow valley that carries 125th Street to the former ferry landing on the Hudson River that served the village of Manhattanville. Though the neighborhood was once considered to run as far south as 125th Street, modern usage defines the neighborhood as running north from Hamilton Heights at 155th Street to Inwood, topping out just below Dyckman Street.[1]

The wooded slopes of Washington Heights seen from a sandy cove on the Hudson as they were about 1845 are illustrated in a canvas by John James Audubon's son, Victor Clifford Audubon, conserved by the Museum of the City of New York.[2]

Manhattan's highest point

Ten blocks from the northern end of Washington Heights, in its Hudson Heights neighborhood near Pinehurst Avenue and 183rd Street in Bennett Park, is a plaque marking Manhattan's highest natural elevation, 265 ft (80.8 m) above sea level, at what was the location of Fort Washington, the Revolutionary War camp of General George Washington and his troops, from whom Washington Heights takes its name.[3]

History

The Battle of Fort Washington, which occurred on November 16, 1776, saw Fort Washington fall to the British at great cost to the American forces; 130 soldiers were killed or wounded, and an additional 2,700 captured and held as prisoners, many of whom died on prison ships anchored in New York Harbor. The British renamed it "Fort Kynphausen" to honor the German general who had led the successful attack, and held it for the remainder of the war.[4] The progress of the battle is marked by a series of bronze plaques along Broadway.

The series of ridges overlooking the Hudson were sites of villas in the 19th century, including the extensive property of John James Audubon.

In the early 1900s, Irish immigrants moved to Washington Heights. European Jews went to Washington Heights to escape Nazism during the 1930s and the 1940s. During the 1950s and 1960s, many Greeks moved to Washington Heights; the community was referred to as the "Astoria of Manhattan." As the nickname became widespread, Cubans and Puerto Ricans moved to the area. By the 1980s and 1990s, the neighborhood became mostly Dominican. By the 2000s, after years when gangsters ruled a thriving illegal drug trade, urban renewal began. Many Dominicans moved to Morris Heights, University Heights, and other west Bronx neighborhoods.[5] While gentrification is often blamed for rapid changes in the neighborhood, the changes in population also reflect the departure of the dominant nationality. Even though Dominicans still make up 73 percent of the neighborhood, their moves to the Bronx have made room for Mexicans and Ecuadorians, according to The Latino Data Project of the City University of New York.[6] The proportion of whites in Washington Heights has declined from 18 percent in 1990 to 14 percent in 2005.[7]

Transportation

Three of the bridges that cross the Harlem River are visible: the High Bridge (a pedestrian bridge that has been closed for many years); the Alexander Hamilton Bridge (part of Interstate 95); and the Washington Bridge. In this photo, looking north, the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan is on the left and the Bronx is on the right.

Washington Heights is connected to Fort Lee, New Jersey, via the Othmar Ammann-designed George Washington Bridge. The Pier Luigi Nervi-designed George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal is located at the Manhattan end of the bridge. The Trans-Manhattan Expressway, a portion of Interstate 95, proceeds from the George Washington Bridge in a trench between 178th and 179th Streets. To the east, the Highway leads to the Alexander Hamilton Bridge across the Harlem River to the Bronx and the Cross-Bronx Expressway. The Washington Bridge crosses the Harlem River just north of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge. High Bridge is the oldest Harlem River span still in existence, crossing the river just south of the Alexander Hamilton Bridge. Originally it carried the Croton Aqueduct as part of the New York City water system and later functioned as a pedestrian bridge that has been closed since 1970. It has been recently announced High Bridge will reopen after a 20 million dollar renovation project.

Step streets

Because of their abrupt, hilly topography, pedestrian navigation, particularly in Upper Manhattan and the West Bronx, is facilitated by many step streets [12]. The longest of these in Washington Heights, at approximately 130 stairs, connects Fort Washington Ave and Overlook Terrace at 187th St.[13] Those averse to climbing stairs can alternatively traverse the elevation change by using the three massive elevators within the 181st Street Subway Station, with entrances on Overlook [14] and Fort Washington [15].

Subways

Washington Heights is served by the New York City Subway. On the Eighth Avenue Line (A and C) service is available at the 155th Street, 163rd Street–Amsterdam Avenue, 168th Street station. The C line ends at 168th St. The A train continues and stops at 175th Street–George Washington Bridge Bus Terminal, 181st Street, 190th Street, Dyckman Street and 207th Street, with Dyckman named for a family that once owned property in the area. Along the Broadway-Seventh Avenue Line, the 1 train has stations at 157th Street, 168th Street, 181st Street, 191st Street, Dyckman Street and 207th Street.

Noted sites

Among the Heights' now-vanished riverfront estates was "Minnie's Land", the home of ornithological artist John James Audubon, who is buried in Trinity Church Cemetery churchyard of the neighborhood's Church of the Intercession (1915), a masterpiece by architect Bertram Goodhue. Also buried there is poet Clement Clark Moore, who wrote "'Twas the Night Before Christmas".

Columbia University Medical Center and Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, the medical campus and school, respectively, of Columbia University, lie in the area of 168th Street and Broadway, occupying the former site of Hilltop Park, the home of the New York Highlanders &ndask; now known as the New York Yankees – from 1903 to 1912. Across the street is the New Balance Track and Field center, an indoor track and home to the National Track & Field Hall of Fame.

The best known cultural site and tourist attraction in Washington Heights is The Cloisters in Fort Tryon Park at the northern end of the neighborhood, with spectacular views across the Hudson to the New Jersey Palisades. This branch of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is devoted to Medieval art and culture, and is located in a medieval-style building, portions of which were purchased in Europe, brought to the United States, and reassembled.

Audubon Terrace, a cluster of five distinguished Beaux Arts institutional buildings, is home to another major, though little-visited museum, The Hispanic Society of America. The Society has the largest collection of works by El Greco and Goya outside of the Museo del Prado, including one of Goya's famous paintings of Cayetana, Duchess of Alba. In September 2007, it commenced a three-year collaboration with the Dia Art Foundation. The campus on Broadway at West 156th Street also houses The American Academy of Arts and Letters, which holds twice yearly, month-long public exhibitions, and Boricua College.

Manhattan's oldest remaining house, the Morris-Jumel Mansion, is located in the landmarked Jumel Terrace Historic District, between West 160th and West 162nd Street, just east of St. Nicholas Avenue. An AAM-accredited historic house museum, the Mansion interprets the colonial era, the period when General George Washington occupied it during the American Revolutionary War, and the early 19th century in New York.

The Paul Robeson Home, located at 555 Edgecombe Avenue on the corner of Edgecombe Avenue and 160th Street, is a National Historic Landmark building. The building is now known for its famous African American residents including actor Paul Robeson, musician Count Basie, and boxer Joe Louis.

On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was assassinated during a speech at the Audubon Ballroom, on Broadway at West 165th Street. The interior of the building was demolished, but the Broadway facade remains, incorporated into one of Columbia's Audubon Center buildings. It is now the home of the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center.[8] Several shops, restaurants and a bookstore occupy the first floor.

At the Hudson's shore, in Fort Washington Park[9] stands the Little Red Lighthouse, a small lighthouse located at the tip of Jeffrey's Hook at the base of the eastern pier of the George Washington Bridge. It was made famous by a 1942 children's book and is the site of a namesake festival in the late summer. A 5.85-mile recreational swim finishes there in early autumn.[10] It's also a popular place to watch for peregrine falcons.[11]

In film and literature

  • In the film Citizen Kane, Jedidiah Leland is spending the remainder of his life in the fictitious "Huntington Memorial Hospital" on 181st Street.
  • The final scene from the film Force of Evil, where Joe Morse discovers the body of his brother near the Hudson River, was filmed on location in the park several yards south of the George Washington Bridge.
  • In the song "Broadway Baby" from the musical Follies, aging chorine Hattie wishes she could be a star all over Manhattan, "from Battery Park to Washington Heights!"
  • The Broadway musical "In the Heights" is set in Washington Heights.
  • CSI: NY Season 2 Episode 16 Cool Hunter features a man found dead in a playground in Washington Heights.
  • The film Pride and Glory takes place in the yet-to-be gentrified streets of Washington Heights.
  • The song "This Is Why I'm Hot" by MIMS has the line "I hit Wash Heights with the money in the bag".
  • The song "A-Punk" by the band Vampire Weekend mentions Washington Heights.
  • The film Mad Hot Ballroom features students from a school in Washington Heights.
  • The film Die Hard: With a Vengeance features the same school as one where a bomb is located.
  • The film The Saint of Fort Washington is not entirely geographically accurate, but is set in the neighborhood, particularly the Fort Washington Avenue Armory and J. Hood Wright park.
  • The film Coogans Bluff features a scene where Clint Eastwood is chasing the criminal he is to bring back to Arizona through the Cloisters.

The 2002 movie "Washington Heights" Starring Manny Perez is the story of a young illustrator trying to escape to the cultural barriers of the latino neighborhood of washington heights. A synopsis is featured in IMBD.

Parks

See also: New York Restoration Project

Community

Today the majority of the neighborhood's population is still of Dominican birth or descent (the area is sometimes referred to as "Quisqueya Heights"), and Spanish is frequently heard being spoken on the streets.[14] Washington Heights has been the most important base for Dominican accomplishment in political, non-profit, cultural, and athletic arenas in the United States since the 1960s. Most of the neighborhood businesses are Dominican owned, driving the local economy.[1] Many Dominican immigrants come to network and live with family members. Bishop Gerard Walsh, former long-time pastor of St. Elizabeth's Roman Catholic Church, located in Washington Heights, said that many residents go to the neighborhood for "cheap housing," obtain jobs "downtown," receive a "good education," and "hopefully" leave the neighborhood.[15]

Before the crash of American Airlines Flight 587 in 2001, according to an article in The Guardian, the flight had "something of a cult status in Washington Heights." A woman quoted in the newspaper said "Every Dominican in New York has either taken that flight or knows someone who has. It gets you there early. At home there are songs about it." After the crash occurred, makeshift memorials appeared in Washington Heights.[15]

The arts

Heralding the arts scene north of Central Park is the annual Uptown Arts Stroll. Artists from Washington Heights, Inwood and Marble Hill are featured in public locations throughout upper Manhattan each summer for several weeks. As of 2008, the Uptown Art Stroll is run by Northern Manhattan Arts Alliance.

The Northern Manhattan Arts Alliance (NoMAA), led by Executive Director Sandra A. García Betancourt, was founded in 2007 to support artists and arts organizations in Washington Heights and Inwood. Their stated mission is to cultivate, support and promote the work of artists and arts organizations in Northern Manhattan. In 2008, NoMAA awarded $50,000 in grants to seven arts organizations and 33 artists in the Washington Heights/Inwood art community. NoMAA sponsors community arts events and publishes an email newsletter of all art events in Washington Heights and Inwood.[16]

Sub-Neighborhoods

Fort Tryon, Frankfurt-on-the-Hudson and Hudson Heights

Fort Washington Collegiate Church

In the years after World War I Fort Tryon was the name of the area between Broadway and the Hudson River, and south of the park to W. 179th Street.[17] References to the old name survive in the Fort Tryon Jewish Center (on Fort Washington Avenue between W. 183rd and W. 185th Streets, the Fort Tryon Deli and Grocery (also on Fort Washington Avenue, at W. 187th Street), and in the pages of the Not for Tourists Guide to New York City.[18]

The neighborhood's name had changed by the late 1940s. Jews from Germany and Austria were leaving home as the Nazi party came to power. A disproportionately large number of Germans who settled in the area had come from Frankfurt am Main, giving rise to Frankfurt-on-the-Hudson.[17] So many Jewish immigrants lived in Washington Heights after World War II that the neighborhood around Broadway and W. 160th Street was jokingly referred to as the Fourth Reich.[19] There remains a significant Jewish population, particularly on the west side of Broadway, descended from the previous wave of immigration, as well as students (and recent graduates) of the neighborhood's Yeshiva University.

Currently some refer to the area as "Hudson Heights".[20][21] Hudson Heights is generally considered to extend as far east as Broadway,[22][23] although others shrink it to the blocks between Fort Washington Avenue and the Hudson River.[citation needed] The name seems to have stuck starting in the 1990s, when neighborhood real estate brokers and activists started using it.[23]

As Soviet (and, later, Russian) immigrants filled the area, Russian became far more common than German. Once Spanish become prevalent, and English was the lingua franca, the German nickname fell by the wayside.

Fort George

Hudson Heights isn't the only Washington Heights neighborhood with a distinct name. Historically, Fort George runs from Broadway east to the Harlem River, and from West 181st Street north to Dyckman Street and Sherman Creek. The largest institution in Fort George is Yeshiva University, whose main campus sits east of Amsterdam Avenue in Highbridge Park. A branch of the Young Men's & Women's Hebrew Association is in the neighborhood, and George Washington High School sits on the site of the original Fort George.

One of Manhattan's rare semi-private streets is there. Washington Terrace runs south of West 186th Street for a half-block between Audubon and Amsterdam Avenues. The single-family homes there were built for middle-class families but some have been unoccupied for years.

It should be noted that younger people and new arrivals don't use the old Fort George name, preferring to refer to the neighborhood simply as Washington Heights.

Sherman Creek and El Alto

Sherman Creek is a small inlet of the Harlem River located south of West 201st Street, north of the Harlem River Drive, and east of Tenth Avenue. As a name for the several blocks around it, Sherman Creek is something of a historical relic, as many people don't care to distinguish it from the surrounding parts of Washington Heights. The name "Sherman Creek" in reference to a residential neighborhood, may make a re-appearance if a much-discussed huge condo complex one day gets off the ground there.

Municipal planners haven't stopped using the name, however. The Manhattan Institute[24] held a forum, "Saving Sherman Creek," in January 2006 at the Harvard Club of New York.[25] The New York City Economic Development Corporation is studying a $9.1 billion plan to reinvigorate the area.[26] The Daily News (New York) has written about the project.[27]

Interestingly, new names for neighborhoods are generally considered to be ersatz creations of real estate agents and, therefore, emblematic of gentrification. However, the newest name for Washington Heights – an alternative, really – comes not from people with dollar signs in their eyes. The Spanish-speaking Caribbean immigrants who have flocked here for decades call Washington Heights a name worthy of its elevation: El Alto.

Crime epidemic

Washington Heights was severely affected by the crack cocaine epidemic of the early/mid-1980s. This was due, in part, to the neighborhood crack gang, known as the Wild Cowboys or the Red Top Gang, who were associated with Yayo. The Wild Cowboys were responsible for the higher number of crimes, especially murders, during the late 80s and early 90s. Robert Jackall wrote a book, Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders and the Forces of Order,[28] describing the events that took place during that period of lawlessness. Homelessness was rampant. Washington Heights had become the largest drug distribution center in the Northeastern United States during that time.[29] A housing project in the neighborhood was nicknamed “Crack City,”[30] an epithet commonly bestowed upon rough areas at the time.

Former 32nd Precinct House on 152nd Street, a NYC Landmark

On October 18, 1988, 24 year old Police Officer Michael Buczek was murdered by Dominican drug dealers in Washington Heights. The killers fled to the Dominican Republic where one later died in police custody and a second was apprehended by U.S. Marshals in 2000. The third suspect was apprehended in the Dominican Republic in May 2002. Fifteen years after the shooting, Pablo Almonte, 51, and Jose Fernandez, 52, received the maximum sentence, 25 years to life, for their roles in the murder of Officer Buczek. Daniel Mirambeaux, the alleged shooter, died in June 1989, plunging to his death under mysterious circumstances after he was ordered turned over to the United States.

In the ensuing years, the Buczek family founded the Michael John Buczek Foundation. There is a street, an elementary school, and a little league baseball field named in honor of Michael John Buczek. The Michael Buczek Little League hosts 30 teams with over 350 boys and girls, and is coached by officers from the 34th precinct.

Crime subsequently fell due to aggressive police tactics. Police presence increased, and building landlords allowed police to patrol in apartment buildings, which led to the arrests of thousands of drug dealers a year in Washington Heights. The arrest of police officers involved in drug dealing changed the neighborhood dramatically.[31] People were also being stopped for quality of life crimes. A new police precinct was also added in the area.[29] Today, its crime rate, along with that of neighboring Harlem, is much lower[32]

Even though crime complaints were down 5.88% in 2007 over 2001 (and down 65.47% from 1993), there were 5 murders in lower Washington Heights (that is, below W. 178th St.) in 2007.[32] By comparison, in the upper portion of Washington Heights, where the 34th Precinct includes Fort George, Hudson Heights and Sherman Creek (as well as Inwood), there was only 1 murder in 2007; likewise, above W. 179th Street, crime complaints were down 21.05% in 2007 over 2001 (and down 83.15% from 1993).[33]

That puts lower Washington Heights on par with Harlem, where the 30th Precinct also recorded five murders in 2007.[34] By comparison, the 13th Precinct (Flatiron, Stuyvesant Town and Union Square) recorded three murders in 2007[35] and the 20th Precinct (the Upper West Side) recorded none.[36]

Sports

Historic

Five clubs in American professional sports played in the Washington Heights area: the New York Giants, who are now the San Francisco Giants, the New York Mets, the New York Yankees, the Football New York Giants and the New York Jets. The baseball Giants played at the Polo Grounds at West 155th Street and Eighth Avenue from 1911–1957, the Yankees played there from 1913–1922, and the New York Mets played their first two seasons (1962 and 1963) there.

Before the Yankees played at the Polo Grounds, they played in Hilltop Park on Broadway between 165th and 168th from 1903–1912; at the time they were known as the New York Highlanders. On May 15, 1912, after being heckled for several innings, the great Ty Cobb leaped the fence and attacked his tormentor. He was suspended indefinitely by league president Ban Johnson, but his suspension was eventually reduced to 10 days and $50. One of the most amazing pitching performances of all time took place at Hilltop Park; on September 4, 1908, 20 year-old Walter Johnson shut out New York 3-0 with a five-hitter. The park is now the Columbia University Medical Center, a major hospital complex, which opened on that location in 1928. Washington Heights was the birth place of Yankee star Alex Rodriguez. Los Angeles Dodgers slugger Manny Ramírez grew up in the neighborhood, moving there from the Dominican Republic when he was thirteen years old and attending George Washington High School, where he was one of the nation's top prospects. Hall-of-Fame infielder Rod Carew, a perennial batting champion in the 1970s, also grew up in Washington Heights, having emigrated with his family from Panama at the age of fourteen.

The New York Mets and New York Jets both began play at the Polo Grounds, while Shea Stadium in Queens was under construction.

Fort Washington Armory

Modern

The New Balance Track and Field Center, located in the Fort Washington Avenue Armory, maintains an Olympic-caliber track that is one of the fastest in the world.[37] High school and colleges hold meets there regularly, and it is open to the public, for a fee, for training. The auditorium seats 2,300 people.

Also at the Armory is The National Track and Field Hall of Fame, along with the Charles B. Rangel Technology & Learning Center for children and students in middle school and high school. The facility is operated by the Armory Foundation, which was created in 1993.

The Armory is the starting point for an annual road race founded by Peter M. Walsh, the Coogan’s Salsa, Blues, and Shamrocks 5K, which is run in March.[38] The race is sanctioned by the New York Road Runners, and counts toward a guaranteed starting spot in the New York Marathon.

Mountain bike races take place in Highbridge Park in the spring and summer. Sponsored by the New York City Mountain Bike Association [39], the races are held on alternate Thursdays and are open to professional competitors and amateurs. Participating in these races is free, but the All-City Cross Country Classic requires a registration fee because prize money is awarded.

Extreme swimmers take part in the Little Red Lighthouse Swim, a 5.85-mile swim in the Hudson River from Clinton Cove (Pier 96) to Jeffrey’s Hook, the location of the Little Red Lighthouse.[40] The annual race, sponsored by the Manhattan Island Foundation, attracts more than 200 competitors. The course records for men and women were both set in 1998. Jeffrey Jotz, 28, of Rahway, N.J., finished in 1 hour, 7 minutes and 36 seconds. Julie Walsh-Arlis, 31, of New York, finished in 1:12:45.

Religious institutions

Jewish

Education

Colleges and universities

University education includes Yeshiva University and Boricua College. The medical campus of Columbia University hosts the College of Physicians and Surgeons, the College of Dental Medicine, the Mailman School of Public Health, the School of Nursing, and the biomedical programs of the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, which offer Masters and Doctorate degrees in several fields. These schools are among the departments that comprise the Columbia University Medical Center.

Bronx Community College www.bcc.cuny.edu/ , a community college of The City University of New York, located in the Bronx, offers a wide variety of opportunities to jump-start an education, as well as programs to help you join the workforce with skills and knowledge gained from one of the many non-credit programs. These include the arts, the humanities, the sciences and technology and many professional development programs to help advance careers. A dedicated faculty, many of whom are acclaimed experts in their fields. In addition, it has a staff of professionals to assist and advise. Bronx Community College strives to make each and every student and trainee feel part of a family of learners. Our multicultural population assures you of being treated with respect and sensitivity to help students succeed and provides a multitude of support services to ensure success. These include child care, a language immersion program for those who don't speak English well, a concerned counseling staff, tutors and tutoring labs, extensive referral services and financial aid for those who qualify. Facilities, housed on an historic campus, include the latest in technology, fully equipped exercise facilities and an olympic-size swimming pool, a television studio, major meeting and performance spaces and a newly-renovated student center with space for student organizations and a conference area. Every effort is made to cultivate physical and social health along with your mind.

Despite its name, CUNY in the Heights, the uptown campus of the City University of New York, is not in the Heights, but in Inwood.[41] The CUNY XPress Center, however, is in the Fort George neighborhood of Washington Heights, but it is not a campus. Instead, its purpose is to assist immigrants and to help students enroll in one of the CUNY schools.[42]

Primary and secondary schools

Private primary and secondary schools include Mother Cabrini High School, The School of The Incarnation, Yeshiva Rabbi Samson Raphael Hirsch, and the City College Academy of the Arts, a project funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Other private schools include the Herbert G. Birch School for Exceptional Children, Medical Center Nursery School and the Marsha Stern Talmudical Academy.

Public primary and secondary schools are assigned to schools in the New York City Department of Education. High Schools include: George Washington High School

Zoned middle schools include:

Grade 6 and 7 option schools include:

Zoned elementary schools include:

Public libraries

Washington Heights Branch

New York Public Library operates the Washington Heights Branch at 1000 St. Nicholas Avenue at West 160th Street, the Fort Washington Branch at 535 West 179th Street at Audubon Avenue, and the Inwood Branch at 200 St. Broadway Avenue and Academy.[43]

Notable residents

Template:ORList

Notable current and former residents of Washington heights include:

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Nguyen, Pauline and Sanchez, Josephine. "Ethnic Communities in New York City: Dominicans in Washington Heights", New York University. Accessed May 21, 2007. "Washington Heights stretches roughly thirty-five blocks across the northern tip of Manhattan island. It encompasses a broad tract of land, taking in 160th Street to about 189th Street and all that lies between the wide avenues of Broadway, St. Nicholas Boulevard, and Fort Washington Avenue. The majority of its occupants are the smiling, chestnut-skinned immigrants of the Dominican Republic, whose steady arrival accounts for 7 percent of New York City's total population, and makes up its highest immigrant group."
  2. Illustrated in Sanderson 2000:69.
  3. New York Department of Parks and Recreation: Bennett Park, accessed June 24, 2006
  4. It appears as "Fort Kynphausen" on the British Headquarters map of c. 1781 that was the starting point for Eric W. Sanderson, Mannahatta: A Natural History of New York City 2009: 48, et passim.
  5. Fernandez, Manny. "New Winds at an Island Outpost." The New York Times. March 4, 2007. 1.
  6. “Northern Manhattan Gentrifying? Study says no.” The Manhattan Times, Vol. 9, December 11, 2008, p. 3 [1]
  7. “The Latino Population of New York City, 2007,” Report 20, Dec. 2008, Center for Latin American, Caribbean & Latino Studies, City University of New York.[2]
  8. Malcolm X & Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial & Educational Center.
  9. Fort Washington Park, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
  10. Little Red Lighthouse Swim, Manhattan Island Foundation
  11. Fort Washington Park: Peregrine Falcons in New York City, New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.
  12. J. Hood Wright Park, accessed December 24, 2006
  13. Dunlap, David W. "A Medical Center Works on Its Health", The New York Times, October 4, 1998. Accessed July 15, 2008.
  14. Fernandez, Manny. "New Winds at an Island Outpost". The New York Times, March 4, 2007. Accessed May 21, 2007. "Dominicans, in fact, increased as a percentage of the total population in Washington Heights and Inwood, from 43 percent in 1990 to 53 percent in 2005."
  15. 15.0 15.1 Younge, Gary. "Flight to the death: Just two months after 9/11, a Queens suburb suffered the second-worst plane crash in US history. Five years on, residents tell Gary Younge, the cause remains worryingly unresolved ", The Guardian, November 11, 2006. Accessed January 24, 2008.
  16. Manhattan Times Profile: Sandra García Betancourt: Creating a Masterpiece
  17. 17.0 17.1 Lowenstein, Steven M. Frankfurt on the Hudson, p. 44. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989.
  18. Not for Tourists Guide to New York City
  19. Lowenstein, Steven M. Frankfurt on the Hudson, pp. 50, 70. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989.
  20. [3] Facebook.com "FYI, it's called Hudson Heights..." group wall. Retrieved on 22 June 2010.
  21. [4] Facebook.com "Hudson Heights Circle of Friends and Neighbors" group wall. Retrieved on 22 June 2010
  22. "Our boundaries are ... west of Broadway." Hudson Heights Owners' Coalition. hhoc.org
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 Garb, Maggie. "If You're Thinking of Living In Hudson Heights: High Above Hudson, a Crowd of Co-ops,", The New York Times, November 8, 1998. "It is situated west of Broadway ..."
  24. [5] The program was sponsored by the Manhattan Institute's Center for Rethinking Development, which fosters a new understanding of the importance of development to New York City's well-being. Focusing on such areas as zoning and planning, environmental review, building codes, historic preservation, and public housing, CRD offers concrete, feasible proposals for reform.
  25. [6] Saving Sherman Creek, The Manhattan Institute.
  26. [7] New York City Economic Development Corporation: Sherman Creek Study.
  27. Zonis, Nadia. Sherman Creek strip across from Fordham Road may get makeover. New York Daily News, March 11, 2007. [8]
  28. "Wild Cowboys: Urban Marauders & the Forces of Order", Amazon.com. Retrieved 30-01-2007.
  29. 29.0 29.1 In Washington Heights, Drug War Survivors Reclaim Their Stoops, accessed November 5, 2006
  30. “... a housing project in New York City's Washington Heights section, nicknamed "Crack City" by reporters covering the drug war ...” Jim Kouri. [9] Retrieved 31-01-2008
  31. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE7DB163DF930A15755C0A964958260 query.nytimes.com
  32. 32.0 32.1 CompStat, 33rd Precinct. Police Department, City of New York
  33. CompStat, 34th Precinct. Police Department, City of New York
  34. CompStat, 30th Precinct. Police Department, City of New York
  35. CompStat, 13th Precinct. Police Department, City of New York
  36. CompStat, 20th Precinct. Police Department, City of New York
  37. History, Armory Track and Field Foundation
  38. Coogan's Salsa, Blues and Shamrocks 5K, New York Road Runners
  39. New York City Mountain Bike Association
  40. Manhattan Island Foundation
  41. "108 Cooper St. at (West) 207 th St." CUNY in the Heights, Adult and Continuing Education Department. [10]
  42. CUNY Citizenship & Immigration Project
  43. "Washington Heights Branch." New York Public Library. Retrieved on December 22, 2008.
  44. Nelson, Amy K. "Alvarez following in some famous footsteps", ESPN.com, June 3, 2008. Accessed June 10, 2008. "In just a few days, Montas and the entire Washington Heights community anticipate that their native son, Pedro Alvarez, a star third baseman for Vanderbilt University, will be the highest player ever drafted from the upper Manhattan neighborhood of New York City."
  45. Mickle, Tripp. "At George Washington High School, Beisbol is a Hit", New Media Workshop at the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism. Accessed May 21, 2007. "Since the mid-1980s, the school has produced two World Series winners in the Major Leagues: Manny Ramírez of the Boston Red Sox and former Florida Marlins shortstop Alex Arias."
  46. "This Week In Baseball History - Week ending 10/5", Sporting News, October 8, 2007. Accessed June 10, 2008. "In 1958, the Carew family migrated to America and settled in the Washington Heights section of New York City."
  47. Gonzalez-Andino, Heriberto. "Rapero Don Dinero se presenta hoy en NJ", El Diario La Prensa, July 27, 2005. Accessed June 7, 2007. "Mientras el reggaet?n ha irrumpido con fuerza en el mercado musical, Don Dinero se mantiene fiel en el hip hop."
  48. Times Topics: People - Jim Dwyer, The New York Times. Accessed June 28, 2007. "Born and raised in the city, Jim is the son of Irish immigrants. For the last 26 years, he has lived in Washington Heights with his family."
  49. Staff. "Hudson Heights delivers", New York Daily News, March 7, 2008. Accessed March 20, 2008. "Hudson Heights continues to deliver on big space, river views and affordable apartments. And celebrities. Actor Laurence Fishburne lives in historic Castle Village overlooking the Hudson."
  50. Weiss, Dick. "Flores, from Dominican Republic, takes unusual journey.", New York Daily News, March 20, 2004. Accessed June 7, 2007. "Luis Flores never figured his future would be in basketball when he was growing up in San Pedro de Marcos, a Dominican Republic hotbed for major league baseball prospects.... But all that changed when his parents sent him from that sun-drenched Caribbean island to live with his grandparents Basilio and Juanita Flores in Washington Heights when he was just 8 years old. "
  51. [11]
  52. Bruce Hooton 1965 Interview of Elias Goldberg at the Smithsonian Archives of American Art
  53. Martin, Justin. "Greenspan: The Man Behind the Money", Perseus Publishing. Accessed June 7, 2007. "A few years prior to the great stock market crash of 1929, Alan Greenspan's parents moved into an apartment in the Washington Heights section of Manhattan."
  54. Half The Song! Half The Dance And OUT!
  55. Jacon K. Javits Playground, accessed December 27, 2006. "Jacob Javits was born on the Lower East Side to Russian Jewish parents. He lived variously in Brooklyn and Manhattan, including this neighborhood, on West 192nd Street, when he was 15."
  56. Cold War Files: Henry Kissinger, accessed December 27, 2006. "He spent his high-school years in the Washington Heights section of upper Manhattan but never lost his pronounced German accent. Kissinger attended George Washington High School at night and worked in a shaving-brush factory during the day."
  57. Morse, Stephen S. "Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008)", Science (magazine), March 7, 2008, vol 319, p. 1351.
  58. Broad, William J. "Joshua Lederberg, 82, a Nobel Winner, Dies", The New York Times, February 5, 2008. Accessed April 22, 2008. "Dr. Lederberg was born May 23, 1925, in Montclair, N.J., to Zvi Hirsch Lederberg, a rabbi, and the former Esther Goldenbaum, who had emigrated from what is now Israel two years earlier. His family moved to the Washington Heights section of Manhattan when he was 6 months old."
  59. Sinclair, Tom. "Still a Marvel! Meet Stan Lee: The mind behind Spider-Man and Hulk. EW talks with the legend who rewrote the book on comics in the '60s, and planted seeds for today's biggest summer movies", Entertainment Weekly, June 20, 2003. Accessed June 7, 2007. "To fully understand how Lee, a poor Jewish kid from New York's Washington Heights, came to be the Munificent Monarch of the Mighty Marvel Universe, we must journey back through the mists of time, all the way to the first quarter of the last century, to reveal...the Origin of Stan Lee!"
  60. Sanneh, Kelefa. "In Search of New York at a Hip-Hop Summit", The New York Times, June 5, 2007. Accessed June 7, 2007. "Sometime around 6:30 the Washington Heights-raised rapper Mims ? better known as the ?This Is Why I?m Hot? guy ? hit the stage to tell the crowd why he is hot. (It?s related somehow to his flyness.)"
  61. "Magic Juan Readies Hip-Hop Masterpiece The Sure Bet, Tours The World, Preps Other Business Ventures; Second Album from Former Lead Vocalist of Latin Hip-Hop Pioneers Proyecto Uno Due Later This Year on M.O.B. Recordings", Hispanic Business., October 13, 2005. Accessed June 7, 2007. "Magic Juan's current ventures should not surprise his loyal fans.... The Washington Heights, New York, native also flexed his acting skills in independent films such as Harlem Blues and Buscando Un Sueno with Lauren Velez."
  62. Guzman, Sandra. "'MANNY' OF THE YEAR: DOMINICAN ACTOR PEREZ IS SET TO STAR IN A DOZEN (!) NEW MOVIES", The New York Post, August 8, 2007. Accessed September 23, 2007. "Perez, who was raised in Providence, Rhode Island, where most of his family still lives, decided long ago that he was not moving to Los Angeles to make it. He lives in and loves Washington Heights."
  63. Biography of Freddie Prinze, Museum of Broadcast Communications , accessed January 3, 2007.
  64. "Head of Production - Manny Ramírez, baseball player for the Red Sox - Statistical Data Included", Baseball Digest, August, 2001 by Gordon Edes. "For a Dominican kid who grew up in the non-trendy side of Manhattan—that upper end of the island known as Washington Heights—Manny Ramírez tends to have his name dropped in the same sentence as the game's biggest stars, past and present, and isn't out of place in their company."
  65. "Alex Rodriguez: he arrived in New York to cries of both "Hallelujah!" and "Is he worth it?" but after his bumpy, bruised beginnings in the Bronx, baseball's heavy-hitting superstar has hit his stride", Interview (magazine), July 2004. "The kid who was born in Washington Heights, New York City, and grew up in Miami had no doubts about handling the pressure in a town where movie stars are second-class citizens to top-tier ballplayers."
  66. Sandomir, Richard. "Daffy Days of Brooklyn Return for Vin Scully", The New York Times, October 5, 2006. Accessed May 21, 2007. "Scully?s lyrical voice has belonged to Los Angeles for so long that only older fans can recall Scully?s time with the Dodgers in Brooklyn from 1950 to 1957 after growing up in the Bronx and in Washington Heights. His last known address in New York was 869 West 180th Street; he took the subway to Ebbets Field during his first Dodgers season."
  67. Boland Jr., Ed. "F.Y.I.", The New York Times, June 15, 2003. Accessed December 3, 2007. "An article about TAKI 183, which appeared in The New York Times on July 21, 1971, revealed that he was a 17-year-old who lived on 183rd Street in Washington Heights."
  68. Dr. Ruth: The Private Parts, accessed December 27, 2006. "Dr. Ruth and her husband, Fred Westheimer, still reside in the same three-bedroom apartment in Washington Heights where they raised their two children."
  69. Kahn, Ashley. "Jerry Wexler: The Man Who Invented Rhythm & Blues: Aretha Franklin producer, Atlantic Records co-chief and music business pioneer dies at age 91", Rolling Stone, August 15, 2008. Accessed August 17, 2008. "He was born Gerald Wexler in 1917 to a working class family, and grew up during the Depression in the upper Manhattan neighborhood of Washington Heights."

Coordinates: 40°51′07″N 73°56′10″W / 40.852°N 73.936°W / 40.852; -73.936

References

  • The WPA Guide to New York City, 1938; reprinted 1982, pp 294ff.
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