Polytechnic Institute of New York University
|Polytechnic Institute of New York University|
|Motto||Homo et Hominis Opera Partes Naturae|
|Motto in English||The human being and human works are parts of nature|
Brooklyn, NY, USA|
|Colors||Purple and Green|
|Mascot||Fighting Blue Jays|
The Polytechnic Institute of New York University (also known as Polytechnic Institute of NYU, NYU Polytechnic, or NYU-Poly) is the second oldest private institute of technology in the United States. It was founded in 1854 in the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City, and has a distinguished history in electrical engineering, polymer chemistry, aerospace, and microwave engineering. It was also known for its outreach programs to encourage math and science education in New York elementary and high schools.
In addition to its main address at MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, the institute offers programs at other sites throughout the region, including Long Island, Westchester, and Manhattan, as well as several programs in Israel.
NYU Polytechnic was listed among the top 10 innovative I.T. schools by Computerworld.com, top four in the U.S. for student diversity by U.S. News & World Report and one of the best Northeastern colleges by the Princeton Review. Its Carnegie Classification is Doctorate-Granting "Research University" (high research activity).
NYU Polytechnic has been ranked, according to The 2010 US News, among the best Engineering Graduate Schools in the nation.
Polytechnic Institute of New York University is ranked #153 out of 262 research universities in the 2011 US News and World Report.
Polytechnic Institute of New York University is located on five different campuses and offers a wide range of educational resources for all phases of education. NYU-Poly includes the Brooklyn Campus, Long Island Campus, Westchester Campus, Manhattan Campus and Israel campus.
Brooklyn CampusThis campus is centrally located in Brooklyn and close to transportation routes. The campus, called MetroTech, is easily accessible from all parts of New York City and Long Island. They have state-of-the-art facilities, including a brand new library, and new faculties for their electrical engineering, computer science and computer engineering programs. 
MetroTech Center: Polytechnic Institute of New York University played a leadership role in bringing about MetroTech Center, one of the largest urban university-corporate parks in the world and the largest in the United States. Today, the 16-acre (65,000 m²), $1 billion complex is home to the institute and several technology-dependent companies, including Securities Industry Automation Corporation (SIAC), New York City Police Department's 911 Center, New York City Fire Department Headquarters and the U.S. technology and operations functions of JPMorgan Chase. In 1998, a Marriott Hotel was built adjacent to MetroTech. MetroTech has proven to be a case study in effective university, corporate, government and private-developer cooperation. It has resulted in renewing an area that once was characterized more by urban decay.
Wunsch Building houses the school's undergraduate admissions offices and is used to host many social, cultural, and academic events for the school and community. The building dates back to 1847 and was the first independent black church in Brooklyn. It was also a stop on the Underground Railroad and has been designated a historic landmark since November 24, 1981.wireless networks allow users with notebook computers to access the library's electronic services from anywhere on campus.
The Poly community also has access to NYU's other libraries, including Elmer Holmes Bobst Library and Frederick L. Ehrman Medical Library.
NYU-Poly has two residence halls in brooklyn; Othmer hall is (generally) for undergraduate students and Livingston Hall for graduate students.
The Othmer Residence Hall is a 18-story building, housing over 400 students in two-bedroom suites and two-bedroom apartments with kitchenettes. This recently renovated residence hall has wireless internet facilities and includes student lounges, study rooms, laundry facilities, outdoor space and 24-hour security.
The Livingston Residence Hall is a 26 story building, housing over 115 graduate students in one bedroom apartments and studios with full kitchens or kitchenette and dining areas. This residence hall is more independent than Othmer and requires that students arrange for their own internet facilities. NYU Public Safety Services officers are on duty 24 hours a day.
Long Island Campus
This campus was opened in 1961. Today it is nationally renowned as one of the nation’s premier technological universities. Recently, they moved to a state of the art facility at The Melville Corporate Center. When they moved to the new facility, they also expanded their graduate programs to include Electrophysics, Systems Engineering, Telecommunication Networks and Wireless Innovation. Most classes and programs offered at this campus are geared towards working professionals.
Established in the 1980s, this graduate center is the Hudson Valley’s premier center for technical and managerial education. People from all over the tri state region travel in to attend classes for graduate studies in the fields of Chemistry, Management of Technology, Telecommunications, Electrical Engineering, Construction Management, Information Systems Engineering and Computer Science. Here again, the classes are geared towards the working professionals. The facility is completely wired and has advanced computer labs and conference style classrooms.
Located at Broad Street in downtown Manhattan, this site again is in the heart of New York. This site offers degree programs in Financial Engineering, Management of Technology, Information Management and Accelerated Management of Technology. The Manhattan Graduate Center offers another state of the art facility for the working professionals in the Manhattan area. This site usually attracts those researchers and professors who want to further their education at a prestigious facility that focuses on technology.
Located in Rishon LeZion, Saharov 5 street in College of Management. This campus offers Master of Science in Management MSM and Master of Science in Organization Behavilour MSOB degrees.
NYU-Poly was formerly the Polytechnic Institute of New York and it currently maintains a formal affiliation between NYU and the Polytechnic Institute of New York (Poly) allowing NYU to complete the transition for Poly to become their school of engineering and applied science (see NYU Affiliation below).
The official timeline for the Institute is maintained on Poly at a Glance: the Poly Timeline.
- A group of Brooklyn businessmen drew up a charter on May 17, 1853, to establish a school for young men.
- In 1854, the Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute was chartered and moved into its first home at 99 Livingston Street.
- In 1855, the school opened its doors September 10 to 265 young men, ages nine to 17. From 1889 to 1973 it was known as "Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn" (but often referred to as "PIB").
- Baccalaureate degrees were conferred for the first time in 1871.
- Postgraduate programs began in 1901.
- In 1917, the preparatory program was separated from Institute and renamed the Polytechnic Preparatory Country Day School, or Poly Prep for short. It is located in the Dyker Heights section of Brooklyn.
- First doctoral degree awarded in 1921.
- Polymer Research Institute established in 1942.
- Microwave Research Institute established in 1945.
- In 1957, Poly moved to its present location (333 Jay Street, the former site of the American Safety Razor factory), and became a co-educational institution.
- In 1973, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn acquired New York University’s School of Engineering and Science to form Polytechnic Institute of New York.
- Center for Advanced Technology in Telecommunications (CATT) established in 1983.
- In 1985, the school name was changed to Polytechnic University.
- In 2008, Polytechnic changed its name to Polytechnic Institute of New York University when it affiliated with New York University, to align itself to become its school for engineering and applied sciences.
Polytechnic Institute of NYU has carried a number of different names.
- 1854: Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute
- 1889: Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn
- 1973: Polytechnic Institute of New York (merged with New York University's school of engineering)
- 1985: Polytechnic University
- 2008: Polytechnic Institute of New York University
In 1973, New York University’s School of Engineering and Science merged into the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn to form the Polytechnic Institute of New York. The 2008 affiliation between Poly and NYU has re-established a formal relationship between New York University and the former Polytechnic Institute of New York after nearly 35 years of separation. The institute is now an interim entity while it aligns itself to become NYU's dedicated resource for applied sciences and engineering.
On August 7, 2007, Polytechnic and New York University (NYU) announced that the two institutions were engaged in merger discussions. In October 2007, NYU’s and Polytechnic's Boards of Trustees both approved continuation of talks on a merger of NYU and Polytechnic. Both institutions decided to continue drafting a Definitive Agreement to more fully define the relationship between the universities.
On March 6, 2008, Polytechnic’s Board of Trustees voted to approve the "Definitive Agreement" to affiliate with New York University, with the goal that Polytechnic would become NYU's school of engineering and technology. On June 24, 2008, the New York State Regents approved an affiliation between Polytechnic and NYU by a change of charter which made NYU the sole member of the Polytechnic, effective July 1, 2008.
|President||Years as president|
|1||John Howard Raymond||1855–1864|
|2||David Henry Cochran||1864–1899|
|3||Henry Sanger Snow||1899–1904, Interim President|
|4||Frederick Washington Atkinson||1904–1925|
|5||Parke Rexford Kolbe||1925–1932|
|6||Charles Edwin Potts||1932–1933, Interim President|
|7||Harry Stanley Rogers||1933–1957|
|8||Ernst Weber||1957–1958, Interim President|
|10||Benjamin Adler||1969–1971, Acting President|
|12||Norman Auburn||1973, Acting President|
|14||David C. Chang||1994–2005|
|15||Jerry MacArthur Hultin||2005–Present|
Admissions and enrollment
Polytechnic Institute of New York University offers Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Master of Engineering, and Doctor of Philosophy degrees in a wide range of majors and programs. More than 89% of undergraduate students receive job offers within 6 months of graduation. NYU-Poly has 1,750 full-time undergraduates and 2750 total full and part-time graduate students; its current student-to-faculty ratio is 13-to-1.
Admission to Polytechnic Institute of New York University is considered "more selective" and applicants will need:
- Competitive SAT or ACT scores
- 4 years of science (including chemistry and physics)
- 4 years of mathematics (algebra through pre-calculus minimum)
- An exceptional personal essay
- 2 letters of recommendation
The 2011 US News and World Report ranked Polytechnic Institute of New York University 153rd out of 262 research universities.
All undergraduate and graduate programs at Polytechnic Institute of New York University are accredited by the Middle States Association. Undergraduate engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET). The undergraduate program in computer science is accredited by the Computer Science Accreditation Board (CSAB). Undergraduate chemistry students have the option to pursue a degree approved by the American Chemical Society (ACS).
Applied Dynamics and Optimization Lab
Composite Materials and Mechanics Laboratory
Computational Mechanics Laboratory
Dynamical Systems Laboratory
Brooklyn Experimental Media Center (formerly Integrated Digital Media Institute)
Internet Security and Information Systems Lab
Polytechnic Institute of New York University has numerous student organizations (over 40) including:
Alpha Phi Omega
A co-ed service fraternity organized to provide community service, leadership development, and social opportunities for college students. The largest collegiate fraternity in the United States, with chapters at over 350 campuses, an active membership of approximately 17,000 students, and over 350,000 alumni members.
Lambda Chi Alpha
A national social fraternity seeks to promote higher education by providing opportunities for academic achievement and leadership. It is one of the largest men's general fraternities in North America and is the largest Greek organization on campus. The chapter also has available housing for members.
Nu Alpha Phi An Asian-interest social fraternity founded in 1994. They strive to improve the surrounding environment through community service and other philanthropic activities. Past efforts have included charity walks, donation drives, voter registration, and soup kitchens.
Omega Phi Alpha
A local, independent, co-ed social fraternity founded in 1986. They are not affiliated with the Omega Phi Alpha national service sorority. They were originally based on the Farmingdale, Long Island Campus. They moved to Brooklyn when the Long Island campus closed and the student body integrated with the main Brooklyn Campus.
The mission of the PolyBOTS is to provide an interdisciplinary environment allowing for the engineering and construction of original robotic and mechanical devices. The PolyBOTS present the means by which students have the ability to learn and excel in multiple technical and engineering fields through hands-on experience.(source) Since its start in 2001, the organization has volunteered to FIRST robotics and FIRST Lego League. They have hosted several workshops for high school students, and have earned several awards by the Institute and FIRST.
Polytechnic Anime Society
The Polytechnic Anime Society consists of students who enjoy gaming, anime, manga, and other aspects of both popular culture and Japanese culture. Besides hosting weekly anime showings and gaming sessions in the university, PAS also hosts and participates in various outside events. Members can often be found in costume attending conventions and parades. They have attended the annual Otakon. In addition, PAS notably hosts the annual SpringFest, a gaming, anime, and pop culture-oriented convention open to everyone. Average attendance per year is usually around 200, with tournaments, panels, and anime showings running throughout the day.
Engineers Without Borders (EWB)
Engineers Without Borders was founded in the spring of 2008, to allow students to apply their technical skills to benefit developing communities around the world. Current EWB projects include providing sustainable, scalable engineering solutions for municipal and civic infrastructures in El Salvador and the sustainable water and sanitation in the Dominican Republic.
U.S. Air Force ROTC All NYU Polytechnic and affiliated students may participate in the U.S. Air Force ROTC program headquartered at Manhattan College; Detachment 560 provide training to students from over 30 schools.
“High Contrast NYU Polytechnic radio is perhaps best known for its friendly atmosphere and success in bringing new creative events to the Polytechnic community. Operated by the students of NYU-Poly, wide musical selections are readily made available. From the broad arrays of Jazz, down to the heart of Classical music composition, and into the best Indie rock and Trance beats. NYU-Poly radio hopes to bring a new spectrum of musical passion, research, and imagination; a clear advantage for not only our current listeners, but also for advertisers hoping to take advantage of our wide-ranging, multifarious audience. Informational meetings are held at the start of each academic year for any who may be interested. Broadcasting 24 hours a day, and 7 days a week via streaming audio, our DJs provide one of the most diverse selections to students and surrounding communities. For more information regarding NYU-Poly Radio, visit our website at http://radio.poly.edu.”
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The NYU-poly Biomedical science club welcomes students of all majors who are interested in the biomedical sciences. Throughout the semester we offer a variety of activities including research talks by faculty and students, workshops on admissions to professional schools of various kinds, and many opportunities to have fun with other students with interests such as yours. Perhaps our most eminent characteristic is our friendly and enthusiastic members. Our organization also provides an environment in which students who hope to develop a career in either health professions or research can come together and gain a worldly experience by not only volunteering, but also by also keeping up to date in regards to current obstacles and developments within their science. We meet every other week and on occasion field-trips are planned and special events are scheduled.
AthleticsFighting Blue Jays and offers its students a wide array of sports teams. The Blue Jays compete in NCAA Division III Championships in Men's and Women's Soccer, Women's Volleyball, Women's Lacrosse, Men's Track, Men's and Women's Basketball, Softball, and Baseball.
NYU-Poly has advanced its athletics program in the last few years. They have constructed a new gym, the Jacobs Gymnasium, located on the Brooklyn campus.
NYU-Poly has a long athletic history. For instance, NYU-Poly and Pratt Institute’s basketball teams have battled it out in some of the world's most famous arenas, including the old Madison Square Garden, the Brooklyn Armory, and the Meadowlands since 1904. More recently, women's volleyball have been advancing in NCAA Tournaments.
Polytechnic Institute of New York University's 37,000 alumni include business leaders, entrepreneurs, politicians, several Nobel Prize winners, and one Wolf Prize winner. Top executives from AT&T, Pfizer, Bechtel, Consolidated Edison, General Electric, IBM, Ingersoll-Rand, Jacobs Engineering, KeySpan Energy, MetLife, Parsons Brinckerhoff, Qwest, Raytheon, Stanley Works, Symbol Technologies, UNISYS, Verizon Communications and Xerox are proud of their roots at Polytechnic. Academic leaders, deans and university presidents started their careers at Polytechnic. Recent presidents of major professional societies, including the American Chemical Society and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), are alumni.
Polytechnic Institute of New York University's alumni have ranked the school as one of the 15 Best Engineering Colleges By Salary Potential.
The Polytechnic Institute of New York University Alumni, established in 1863, promotes and maintains the welfare of Polytechnic and provides fellowship and mutually beneficial activities among Poly graduates. Officers and an international board of directors govern the polytechnic alumni. Alumni sections offer events around the country and internationally.
A list of the notable Polythinkers are officially maintained at Polythinking Innovation Gallery.
- Ju Chin Chu - Member of Academia Sinica.
- Paul Peter Ewald - Inventor of X-ray diffraction method for determination of molecular structure; Physics Department chair until 1957 (while Francis Crick was a student).
- Isadore Fankuchen - Pioneer of X-ray diffraction crystallography; determined (with Bernal) the structure of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus; predicted the "Fankuchen effect in curved crystals".
- David and Gregory Chudnovsky – famous mathematicians who held the record for number of digits of pi in 1989. They now run the Institute for Mathematics and Advanced Supercomputing (IMAS) at Polytechnic
- Gordon Gould – Former Polytechnic Professor who was the inventor of the laser
- David Harker - American physicist, X-ray crystallographer, and discoverer of the Donnay-Harker law and Harker-Kasper inequalities.
- Maurice Karnaugh – A inventor of Karnaugh Maps, or K-Maps, while at Bell Labs. He was a professor at the Westchester campus from 1980–1999 and is now retired
- Paul Levinson - author of The Plot To Save Socrates, media commentator on The O'Reilly Factor and other TV and radio. He was Visiting Professor at the Philosophy and Technology Study Center at Polytechnic, 1987-1988.
- Rudolph Marcus – Former Polytechnic Professor awarded Nobel Prize in chemistry
- Herman F. Mark – Founder of the Polymer Research Institute
- Phil Maymin - Assistant Professor of Finance and Risk Engineering and Libertarian Party House candidate in Connecticut
- Donald Othmer – Co-Author, Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, inventor of the Othmer Still (a laboratory device for vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements).
- Eli Pearce – President, American Chemical Society
- Leonard Peikoff = Former Philosophy Professor, founder of the Ayn Rand Institute
- Athanasios Papoulis - Pioneer in the field of stochastic processes.
- Murray Rothbard – Former economics professor, key figure in libertarian movement
- Ernst Weber – Founder of the Microwave Research Institute; first IEEE President
- Joel Snyder - IEEE President 2001, Founder of Snyder Associates, Former Polytechnic Senior Industry Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
- Parke Kolbe
- Francis Crick - Co-discoverer of DNA structure; awarded Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.
- Nassim Nicholas Taleb - Epistemologist author of The Black Swan; works in the risk engineering department.
- Torsten Suel - Pioneer of Web search engine.
- Hans Reissner - German aeronautical engineer.
- R. M. Foster - Bell Labs mathematician whose work was of significance regarding electronic filters for use on telephone lines.
- Paul M. Doty - emeritus Harvard Mallinckrodt Professor of Biochemistry who specialized in the physical properties of macromolecules and has been strongly involved in peace and security policy issues.
- Frederick B. Llewellyn - a noted American electrical engineer.
- James Tenney - American composer and influential music theorist.
- Jack Keil Wolf - a noted American researcher in information theory and coding theory.
- Louis Zukofsky - one of the most important second-generation American modernist poets.
- Eugene D. Genovese - American historian of the American South and American slavery.
- Charles William Hanko - American historian and politician.
- S. L. Greitzer - American mathematician, the founding chairman of the United States of America Mathematical Olympiad, and the publisher of the precollege mathematics journal Arbelos.
- Joseph Wood Krutch - American writer, critic, and naturalist.
- R. Luke DuBois - American composer, performer, conceptual new media artist, programmer, record producer and pedagogue based in New York City.
- Elliott Waters Montroll - American scientist and mathematician.
- Joshua W. Sill - Professor of Mathematics who attended Brooklyn Collegiate and Polytechnic Institute. Later became the youngest General in the Civil War. Fort Sill is named after him.
- Paul Peter Ewald - German-born U.S. crystallographer and physicist, a pioneer of X-ray diffraction methods.
- Edward Kimbark - noted power engineer.
- Dan Bailey - fly-shop owner, innovative fly developer and staunch Western conservationist.
- Morgan Chu - Intellectual property attorney, is one of the first Asian Americans to lead a major U.S. law firm.
- Ta-You Wu - Nuclear physicist and President of Academia Sinica.
- Polytechnic Institute of New York University
- NYU-Poly Israel
- Timeline History of Polytechnic Institute of New York University
- Polytechnic Alumni
- ePoly: Poly Online Learning Initiative
- Polytechnic Institute of New York University Honors College
- NYU-Poly Supermileage Team Website
- NYU-Poly Bulletin Board System
Articles about university
- IT School to Watch: Polytechnic Institute of New York University, Computer World, August 2008
- NY State Provides $2 Million Grant to Polytechnic Institute of NYU, International Business Times, October 29, 2008
- Career Watch: NYU focuses on IT leaders, Network World, November 10, 2008
- Polytechnic Institute of NYU Dedicates Gerstein Fisher Research Center for Finance and Risk Engineering, Wall Street Select, September 9, 2009
- NYU-Poly helps open business 'incubator', Washington Square News, September 15, 2009
- Breakthrough Research Speeds and Secures Internet Voice Traffic ; Cisco, Verizon, NYU-Poly and Columbia University Collaborate on Security, Barron's, October 8, 2009
- NYU-Poly receives grant to advance wireless networking, Washington Square News, November 13, 2009
- Computer hacking contest - NYU Polytechnic, ABC News, December 4, 2009
- ↑ As of June 30, 2009. "U.S. and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2009 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2008 to FY 2009" (PDF). 2009 NACUBO-Commonfund Study of Endowments. National Association of College and University Business Officers. http://www.nacubo.org/Documents/research/2009_NCSE_Public_Tables_Endowment_Market_Values.pdf. Retrieved March 5, 2010.
- ↑ "About Poly". Polytechnic University of NYU. http://www.poly.edu/about/. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- ↑ "CS-NYUPoly". Cedar Crestone.
- ↑ "Polytechnic Carnegie Classification". Carnegie Foundation. http://classifications.carnegiefoundation.org/lookup_listings/view_institution.php?unit_id=194541.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Best Engineering Schools". US News College Rankings and Reviews. http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-engineering-schools/items.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/brooklyn-ny/polytechnic-nyu-2796
- ↑ "Executive MS Programs". Polytechnic University of NYU. http://www.poly.edu/academics/programs/management-technology-ms/.
- ↑ http://www.nyu.edu/public.affairs/releases/detail/2294
- ↑ http://www.brooklyneagle.com/categories/gallery.php?id=32084&nr_fotki=1
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 http://www.poly.edu/life/campus/residence
- ↑ http://www.nyu.edu/residential.education/residence.halls/livingston.street/features.html
- ↑ http://www.poly.edu/identity/#poly-name NYU-Poly Interim Identity Style Guide
- ↑ "2007 Poly at a Glance" (PDF)
- ↑ http://www.longislandcolleges.com/college/polytechnic-university.html
- ↑ http://www.poly.edu/about/polytechnic
- ↑ http://www.nyu.edu/about/poly.faq.html
- ↑ InsideHigherEd, Merger on Whose Terms
- ↑ Exploring the Future: The Possible Merger of New York University and Polytechnic University, Board Chairman Craig Matthews, President Jerry Hultin, and Provost Erich Kunhardt of Polytechnic University
- ↑ Memo to the NYU Community: A Future Together for NYU and Polytechnic University, President John Sexton and Provost David McLaughlin of New York University]
- ↑ 20.0 20.1 Proposed Affiliation
- ↑ Statement by Polytechnic President Jerry M. Hultin and Board Chairman Craig G. Matthews On Board Approval to Move Forward With Merger with New York University
- ↑ :: POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY :: New York State Board of Regents Approves Partnership Between Polytechnic University and New York University
- ↑ Report Senator Kenneth P LaValle
- ↑ http://www.poly.edu/admissions/undergraduate/why
- ↑ http://www.news-releases.uiowa.edu/2006/march/033106usnews_report.html
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 "Best Engineering Colleges By Salary Potential". PayScale.com. http://www.payscale.com/best-colleges/best-engineering-colleges.asp. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- ↑ http://www.businessweek.com/lifestyle/content/aug2008/bw2008087_013640_page_3.htm | title=Which College Grads Earn the Most?|publisher=Business Week
- ↑ http://grad-schools.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-graduate-schools/top-engineering-schools/items
- ↑ http://22.214.171.124/~gradcenter/soar/php/sassociations.php
- ↑ http://nyupoly-ewb.org/?page_id=2
- ↑ http://nyupoly-ewb.org/?page_id=42
- ↑ http://nyupoly-ewb.org/?page_id=29
- ↑ http://home.manhattan.edu/~afrotc/new/?q=content/crosstowns
- ↑ http://armyrotc.com/edu/fordham/index.htm
- ↑ http://www.qualifiedsurgeons.org/archives/stokeshighlight.html
- ↑ http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=32783876
- ↑ http://www.nndb.com/people/099/000132700/
- ↑ Polythinking Gallery: Gilbert
- ↑ Polythinking Gallery: Owades
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