New York City
Template:Fix bunching New York is the most populous city in the United States, and the center of the New York metropolitan area, which is one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. A leading global city, New York exerts a powerful influence over global commerce, finance, media, culture, art, fashion, research, education, and entertainment. As host of the United Nations Headquarters, it is also an important center for international affairs. The city is often referred to as New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the state of New York, of which it is a part.
Located on a large natural harbor on the Atlantic coast of the Northeastern United States, the city consists of five boroughs: The Bronx, Brooklyn, Manhattan, Queens, and Staten Island. The city's 2009 estimated population approached 8.4 million, and with a land area of 305 square miles (790 km2), New York City is the most densely populated major city in the United States. The New York metropolitan area's population is also the nation's largest, estimated at 19.1 million people over 6,720 square miles (17,400 km2). Furthermore, the Combined Statistical Area containing the greater New York metropolitan area contained 22.2 million people as of 2009 Census estimates, also the largest in the United States.
New York was founded as a commercial trading post by the Dutch in 1624. The settlement was called New Amsterdam until 1664 when the colony came under English control. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the country's largest city since 1790. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York City, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world.
Many districts and landmarks in the city have become well known to outsiders. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to America in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway theater district, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. Anchored by Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, New York vies with London as the financial capital of the world and is home to the New York Stock Exchange, the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies. The original Manhattan Chinatown attracts throngs of tourists to its bustling sidewalks and retail establishments. World-class schools and universities such as Columbia University and New York University also reside in New York City.
The region was inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans at the time of its European discovery in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown, who named it "Nouvelle Angoulême" (New Angoulême). European settlement began with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement, later called "Nieuw Amsterdam" (New Amsterdam), on the southern tip of Manhattan in 1614. Dutch colonial Director-General Peter Minuit purchased the island of Manhattan from the Lenape in 1626 for a value of 60 guilders (about $1000 in 2006); a disproved legend says that Manhattan was purchased for $24 worth of glass beads.
In 1664, the city was surrendered to the English and renamed "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany. At the end of the Second Anglo-Dutch War the Dutch gained control of Run (then a much more valuable asset) in exchange for the English controlling New Amsterdam (New York) in North America. Several intertribal wars among the Native Americans and some epidemics brought on by the arrival of the Europeans caused sizable population losses for the Lenape between the years 1660 and 1670. By 1700, the Lenape population had diminished to 200. In 1702, city lost 10% of its population to yellow fever. New York underwent no less than seven important yellow fever epidemics from 1702 to 1800.
New York grew in importance as a trading port while under British rule. The city hosted the influential John Peter Zenger trial in 1735, helping to establish the freedom of the press in North America. In 1754, Columbia University was founded under charter by George II of Great Britain as King's College in Lower Manhattan. The Stamp Act Congress met in New York in October of 1765 as the Sons of Liberty organized in the city, skirmishing over the next ten years with British troops stationed there.
During the American Revolution the largest battle of the war, the Battle of Long Island was fought in August 1776, entirely within the modern day borough of Brooklyn. After the battle in which the Americans were routed, and subsequent smaller engagements following in its wake, the city became the British military and political base of operations in North America. The city was a haven for Loyalist refugees, until the war ended in 1783. The only attempt at a peaceful solution to the war took place at the Conference House on Staten Island between American delegates including Benjamin Franklin, and British general Lord Howe on September 11, 1776. Shortly after the British occupation began the Great Fire of New York occcured, a large conflagration which destroyed about a quarter of the buildings in the city including Trinity Church.
The assembly of the Congress of the Confederation made New York the national capital shortly after the war: the Constitution of the United States was ratified and in 1789 the first President of the United States, George Washington, was inaugurated; the first United States Congress and the United States Supreme Court each assembled for the first time in 1789, and the United States Bill of Rights drafted, all at Federal Hall on Wall Street. By 1790, New York had surpassed Philadelphia as the largest city in the United States.
In the 19th century, the city was transformed by immigration and development. A visionary development proposal, the Commissioners' Plan of 1811, expanded the city street grid to encompass all of Manhattan, and the 1819 opening of the Erie Canal connected the Atlantic port to the vast agricultural markets of the North American interior. Local politics fell under the domination of Tammany Hall, a political machine supported by Irish immigrants. Several prominent American literary figures lived in New York during the 1830s and 1840s, including William Cullen Bryant, Washington Irving, Herman Melville, Rufus Wilmot Griswold, John Keese, Nathaniel Parker Willis, and Edgar Allan Poe. Public-minded members of the old merchant aristocracy lobbied for the establishment of Central Park, which became the first landscaped park in an American city in 1857. A significant free-black population also existed in Manhattan and Brooklyn. Slaves had been held in New York through 1827, but during the 1830s New York became a center of interracial abolitionist activism in the North. New York's black population was over 16,000 in 1840. The Great Irish Famine brought a large influx of Irish immigrants, and by 1860, one in four New Yorkers – over 200,000 – had been born in Ireland.
In 1898, the modern City of New York was formed with the consolidation of Brooklyn (until then a separate city), the County of New York (which then included parts of the Bronx), the County of Richmond, and the western portion of the County of Queens. The opening of the subway in 1904 helped bind the new city together. Throughout the first half of the 20th century, the city became a world center for industry, commerce, and communication. However, this development did not come without a price. In 1904, the steamship General Slocum caught fire in the East River, killing 1,021 people on board.
In 1911, the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, the city's worst industrial disaster, took the lives of 146 garment workers and spurred the growth of the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union and major improvements in factory safety standards.
New York's nonwhite population was 36,620 in 1890. In the 1920s, New York City was a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration from the American South. By 1916, New York City was home to the largest urban African diaspora in North America. The Harlem Renaissance flourished during the era of Prohibition, coincident with a larger economic boom that saw the skyline develop with the construction of competing skyscrapers.
New York became the most populous urbanized area in the world in early 1920s, overtaking London, and the metropolitan area surpassed the 10 million mark in early 1930s becoming the first megacity in human history. The difficult years of the Great Depression saw the election of reformer Fiorello LaGuardia as mayor and the fall of Tammany Hall after eighty years of political dominance.
Returning World War II veterans created a postwar economic boom and the development of large housing tracts in eastern Queens. New York emerged from the war unscathed and the leading city of the world, with Wall Street leading America's ascendance as the world's dominant economic power, the United Nations headquarters (completed in 1950) emphasizing New York's political influence, and the rise of abstract expressionism in the city precipitating New York's displacement of Paris as the center of the art world.
In the 1960s, New York City began to suffer from economic problems and rising crime rates. While a resurgence in the financial industry greatly improved the city's economic health in the 1980s, New York's crime rate continued a steep uphill climb through the decade and into the beginning of the 1990s. By the 1990s, crime rates started to drop dramatically due to increased police presence and gentrification, and many American transplants and waves of new immigrants arrived from Asia and Latin America. Important new sectors, such as Silicon Alley, emerged in the city's economy and New York's population reached an all-time high in the 2000 census.
The city was one of the sites of the September 11, 2001 attacks, when nearly 3,000 people died in the destruction of the World Trade Center. A new 1 World Trade Center (previously known as the Freedom Tower), a World Trade Center Memorial and three other office towers, are being built on the site and are scheduled for completion by 2013.
New York City is located in the Northeastern United States, in southeastern New York State, approximately halfway between Washington, D.C. and Boston. The location at the mouth of the Hudson River, which feeds into a naturally sheltered harbor and then into the Atlantic Ocean, has helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and Long Island (where the boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are situated), making land scarce and encouraging a high population density. Only the borough of the Bronx is attached to the US mainland.
The Hudson River flows through the Hudson Valley into New York Bay. Between New York City and Troy, New York, the river is an estuary. The Hudson separates the city from New Jersey. The East River – a tidal strait – flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Brooklyn and Queens on Long Island. The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx. The Bronx River, which flows through the Bronx and Westchester County, is the only entirely fresh water river in the city.
The city's land has been altered substantially by human intervention, with considerable land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Reclamation is most prominent in Lower Manhattan, with developments such as Battery Park City in the 1970s and 1980s. Some of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, especially in Manhattan.
The city's land area is estimated at 304.8 square miles (789 km2). Its total area is 468.9 square miles (1,214 km2). 164.1 square miles (425 km2) of this are water and 304.8 square miles (789 km2) is land. The highest point in the city is Todt Hill (Dutch for "Dead Hill") on Staten Island, which, at 409.8 feet (124.9 m) above sea level, is the highest point on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The summit of the ridge is mostly covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt.
The area averages 234 days with at least some sunshine annually, for an average of 2540 hours of bright sunshine per year . Winters are cold and wet, and prevailing wind patterns that blow offshore minimize the moderating effects of the Atlantic Ocean. Yet, the Atlantic and the partial shielding of the Appalachians keep the city warmer in the winter than inland North American cities located at similar or lesser latitudes such as Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Indianapolis. The average temperature in January, the area's coldest month, is 32.1 °F (Template:Convert/proundT0 °C). However temperatures in winter could for a few days be as low as 20 °F (Template:Convert/proundT1 °C) and as high as 60 °F (Template:Convert/proundT0 °C). Spring and autumn are unpredictable, and can range from chilly to warm, although they are usually pleasantly mild with low humidity. Summers are typically hot and humid with a July average of 76.5 °F (Template:Convert/proundT0 °C). Nighttime conditions are often exacerbated by the urban heat island phenomenon, and temperatures exceed 90 °F (Template:Convert/proundT0 °C) on average of 18 days each summer and can exceed 104 °F (Template:Convert/proundT0 °C) every 4–6 years.
The city receives 49.7 inches (1,260 mm) of precipitation annually, which is fairly spread throughout the year. Average winter snowfall for the past century has been 28 inches (71 cm), but this usually varies considerably from year to year, and snow cover usually remains for a few days. Hurricanes and tropical storms are rare in the New York area, but are not unheard of and always have the potential to strike the area.
Mass transit use in New York City is the highest in the United States, and gasoline consumption in the city is the same rate as the national average in the 1920s. The city's high level of mass transit use saved 1.8 billion gallons of oil in 2006; New York City saves half of all the oil saved by transit nationwide. The city's population density, low automobile use and high transit utility make it among the most energy efficient cities in the United States. Its greenhouse gas emissions are 7.1 metric tons per person compared with the national average of 24.5. New Yorkers are collectively responsible for 1% of the nation's greenhouse gas emissions though they comprise 2.7% of the nation's population. The average New Yorker consumes less than half the electricity used by a resident of San Francisco and nearly one-quarter the electricity consumed by a resident of Dallas.
In recent years, the city has focused on reducing its environmental impact. Large amounts of concentrated pollution in New York has led to a high incidence of asthma and other respiratory conditions among the city's residents. The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing. New York has the largest clean air diesel-hybrid and compressed natural gas bus fleet in the country, and also, by mid 2010 the city has 3,715 hybrid taxis and other clean diesel vehicles, representing around 28% of New York's taxi fleet in service, the most in any city in North America.
The city government was a petitioner in the landmark Massachusetts v. Environmental Protection Agency Supreme Court case forcing the EPA to regulate greenhouse gases as pollutants. The city is also a leader in the construction of energy-efficient green office buildings, including the Hearst Tower among others.
The city is supplied with drinking water by the protected Catskill Mountains watershed. As a result of the watershed's integrity and undisturbed natural water filtration system, New York is one of only four major cities in the United States with drinking water pure enough not to require purification by water treatment plants.
New York is the only US city where autoless households constitute a greater percentage of the population than households with one or more cars. Approximately 55% of NYC households do not have a car
Manhattan's skyline with its many skyscrapers is universally recognized, and the city has been home to several of the tallest buildings in the world. As of August 2008, New York City has 5,538 highrise buildings, with 50 completed skyscrapers taller than 656 feet (200 m). This is more than any other city in United States, and second in the world, behind Hong Kong.
New York has architecturally noteworthy buildings in a wide range of styles. These include the Woolworth Building (1913), an early gothic revival skyscraper built with massively scaled gothic detailing. The 1916 Zoning Resolution required setback in new buildings, and restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size, to allow sunlight to reach the streets below.
The Art Deco style of the Chrysler Building (1930), with its tapered top and steel spire, reflected the zoning requirements. The building has distinctive ornamentation such as replicas at the corners of the 61st floor of the 1928 Chrysler eagle hood ornaments.
A highly influential example of the international style in the United States is the Seagram Building (1957), distinctive for its facade using visible bronze-toned I-beams to evoke the building's structure. The Condé Nast Building (2000) is an prominent example of green design in American skyscrapers.
New York's large residential districts are often defined by the classic brownstone rowhouses, townhouses, and tenements that were built during a period of rapid growth from 1870 to 1930. Stone and brick became the city's building materials of choice after the construction of wood-frame houses was limited in the aftermath of the Great Fire of 1835.
A distinctive feature of many of the city's buildings is the wooden roof-mounted water towers. In the 1800s, the city required their installation on buildings higher than six stories to prevent the need for excessively high water pressures at lower elevations, which could break municipal water pipes.
New York City has over 28,000 acres (110 km2) of municipal parkland and 14 miles (23 km) of public beaches. This parkland is augmented by thousands of acres of federal and state parkland.
National Park System
Gateway National Recreation Area; the New York State portion includes the Jamaica Bay Wildlife Refuge in Brooklyn, over 9,000 acres (36 km2) of salt marsh, islands and water that covers most of Jamaica Bay. Fort Wadsworth in Staten Island with historic pre-Civil war era Battery Weed and Fort Tompkins and Great Kills Park also on Staten Island with beaches and Great Kills Harbor.
New York State Parks
There are seven state parks within the confines of New York City, including Clay Pit Ponds State Park, a natural area which includes extensive riding trails, and Riverbank State Park, a 28-acre (110,000 m2) facility that rises 69 feet (21 m) over the Hudson River.
New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
- Central Park an 883-acre (3.57 km2) park in Manhattan, is the most visited city park in the United States, with 25 million visitors each year. The park contains a myriad of attractions; there are several lakes and ponds, two ice-skating rinks, the Central Park Zoo, the Central Park Conservatory Garden, the 106-acre (0.43 km2) Jackie Onassis Reservoir. Indoor attractions include Belvedere Castle with its nature center, the Swedish Cottage Marionette Theatre and the historic Carousel.
- Prospect Park in Brooklyn, has a 90-acre (360,000 m2) meadow, a lake and extensive woodlands. Located within the park is the historic Battle Pass, which fiqured prominently in the Battle of Long Island.
- Flushing Meadows–Corona Park in Queens, the city's third largest park, was the setting for the 1939 World's Fair and the 1964 World's Fair.
- Over a fifth of the Bronx's area, 7,000 acres (28 km2), is open space and parks, including Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the Bronx Zoo and the New York Botanical Gardens.
- In Staten Island the Conference House Park contains the historic Conference House site of the only attempt of a peaceful resolution to the American Revolution, attended by Benjamin Franklin, representing the Americans, and Lord Howe, representing the British Crown. Located within the park is the historic Burial Ridge, the largest Native American burial ground within New York City.
New York City is composed of five boroughs. Each borough is coextensive with a respective county of New York State as shown below. Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character to call their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.
- Manhattan (New York County; 2009 Est. Pop.: 1,629,054) is the most densely populated borough and is home to Central Park and most of the city's skyscrapers. The borough is the financial center of the city and contains the headquarters of many major corporations, the United Nations, a number of important universities, and many cultural attractions. Manhattan is loosely divided into Lower, Midtown, and Uptown regions. Uptown Manhattan is divided by Central Park into the Upper East Side and the Upper West Side, and above the park is Harlem.
- The Bronx (Bronx County: Pop. 1,397,287) is New York City's northernmost borough, the location of Yankee Stadium, home of the New York Yankees, and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. Except for a small section of Manhattan known as Marble Hill, the Bronx is the only section of the city that is part of the United States mainland. It is home to the Bronx Zoo, the largest metropolitan zoo in the United States, which spans 265 acres (1.07 km2) and is home to over 6,000 animals. The Bronx is the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture.
- Brooklyn (Kings County: Pop. 2,567,098), on the western tip of Long Island, is the city's most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. Brooklyn is known for its cultural, social and ethnic diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods and a distinctive architectural heritage. It is also the only borough outside of Manhattan with a distinct downtown neighborhood. The borough features a long beachfront and Coney Island, established in the 1870s as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country.
- Queens (Queens County: Pop. 2,306,712) is geographically the largest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States, and may overtake Brooklyn as the city's most populous borough due to its growth. Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, today the borough is predominantly residential and middle class. Queens County is the only large county in the United States where the median income among African Americans, approximately $52,000 a year, is higher than that of White Americans. Queens is the site of Citi Field, the home of the New York Mets, and annually hosts the U.S. Open tennis tournament. Additionally, it is home to two of the three major airports serving the New York metropolitan area, LaGuardia Airport and John F. Kennedy International Airport. (The third is Newark Liberty International Airport in Newark, New Jersey.)
- Staten Island (Richmond County: Pop. 491,730) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. Staten Island is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by way of the free Staten Island Ferry. The Staten Island Ferry is one of the most popular tourist attractions in New York City as it provides unsurpassed views of the Statue of Liberty, Ellis Island, and lower Manhattan. Located in central Staten Island, the Template:Convert/acres Greenbelt has some 28 miles (45 km) of walking trails and one of the last undisturbed forests in the city. Designated in 1984 to protect the island's natural lands, the Greenbelt comprises seven city parks.
Culture and contemporary life
Numerous major American cultural movements began in the city, such as the Harlem Renaissance, which established the African-American literary canon in the United States.
The city was a center of jazz in the 1940s, abstract expressionism in the 1950s and the birthplace of hip hop in the 1970s. The city's punk and hardcore scenes were influential in the 1970s and 1980s, and the city has long had a flourishing scene for Jewish American literature.
The city prominently excels in its spheres of art, cuisine, dance, music, opera, theater, independent film, fashion, museums, and literature. The city is the birthplace of many cultural movements, including the Harlem Renaissance in literature and visual art; abstract expressionism (also known as the New York School) in painting; and hip hop, punk, salsa, disco, freestyle, and Tin Pan Alley in music. New York City is also widely celebrated in popular lore, featured frequently as the setting for books, movies (see New York in film), and television programs.
Entertainment and performing arts
Today, New York City is the second largest center for the film industry in the United States. The city has more than 2,000 arts and cultural organizations and more than 500 art galleries of all sizes.
The city government funds the arts with a larger annual budget than the National Endowment for the Arts. Wealthy industrialists in the 19th century built a network of major cultural institutions, such as the famed Carnegie Hall and Metropolitan Museum of Art, that would become internationally established. The advent of electric lighting led to elaborate theater productions, and in the 1880s New York City theaters on Broadway and along 42nd Street began featuring a new stage form that became known as the Broadway musical.
Strongly influenced by the city's immigrants, productions such as those of Harrigan and Hart, George M. Cohan and others used song in narratives that often reflected themes of hope and ambition. Today these productions are a staple of the New York theater scene.
The city's 39 largest theaters (with more than 500 seats) are collectively known as "Broadway," after the major thoroughfare that crosses the Times Square theater district. This area is sometimes referred to as The Main Stem, The Great White Way or The Realto.
Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts is home to 12 influential arts organizations, making it the largest performing arts complex in the United States.
The Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, includes...
- Jazz at Lincoln Center
- Metropolitan Opera
- New York City Opera
- New York Philharmonic
- New York City Ballet, the Vivian Beaumont Theatre, the Juilliard School and Alice Tully Hall, is the largest performing arts center in the United States.
Tourism is one of New York City's most vital industries, with more than 40 million combined domestic and international tourists visiting each year in the past five years. Major destinations include the Empire State Building; Statue of Liberty; Ellis Island; Broadway theater productions; museums such as the Metropolitan Museum of Art; greenspaces such as Central Park and Washington Square Park; Rockefeller Center; Times Square; luxury shopping along Fifth and Madison Avenues; and events such as the Halloween Parade in Greenwich Village, the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the St. Patrick's Day parade, seasonal activities such as ice skating in Central Park in the wintertime, the Tribeca Film Festival, and free performances in Central Park at Summerstage. Special experiences outside the key tourist areas of the city include, but are not limited to the Bronx Zoo; Coney Island; and the New York Botanical Garden.
In 2008, New York City had a record number of tourists, more than 47 million in all, and their spending contributed US$32.1 billion directly to the city economy, also a record. Since the United States economy is still recovering, Mayor Michael Bloomberg's goal is to break the record again in 2012 by drawing more than 50 million tourists.
New York is a center for the television, advertising, music, newspaper and book publishing industries and is also the largest media market in North America (followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, and Toronto).
Some of the city's media conglomerates include Time Warner, the Thomson Reuters Corporation, the News Corporation, the Hearst Corporation, and Viacom. Seven of the world's top eight global advertising agency networks have their headquarters in New York. Three of the "Big Four" record labels' headquarters, are in New York City; Universal Music Group, Sony Music Entertainment and Warner Music Group. One-third of all American independent films are produced in New York.
Major tabloid newspapers in the city include:
The city also has a major ethnic press, with 270 newspapers and magazines published in more than 40 languages. El Diario La Prensa is New York's largest Spanish-language daily and the oldest in the nation. The New York Amsterdam News, published in Harlem, is a prominent African American newspaper. The Village Voice is the largest alternative newspaper
The television industry developed in New York and is a significant employer in the city's economy.
The four major American broadcast networks are all headquartered in New York: ABC; CBS; FOX and NBC, Many cable channels are based in the city as well, including; MTV; Fox News; HBO and Comedy Central.
In 2005, there were more than 100 television shows taped in New York City.
New York is also a major center for non-commercial media. The oldest public-access television channel in the United States is the Manhattan Neighborhood Network, founded in 1971. *WNET is the city's major public television station and a primary source of national programming. PBS programming. WNYC, a public radio station owned by the city until 1997, has the largest public radio audience in the United States.
The City of New York operates a public broadcast service, NYCTV, that produces several original Emmy Award-winning shows covering music and culture in city neighborhoods and city government.
New York's food culture includes a variety of world cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history.
Eastern European and Italian immigrants have made the city famous for bagels, cheesecake, and New York-style pizza. Some 4,000 mobile food vendors licensed by the city, many immigrant-owned, have made Middle Eastern foods such as falafels and kebabs standbys of modern New York street food, although hot dogs and pretzels are still the main street fare.
The New York area has a distinctive regional speech pattern called the New York dialect, alternatively known as Brooklynese or New Yorkese. It is generally considered one of the most recognizable accents within American English. The classic version of this dialect is centered on middle and working class people of European American descent, and the influx of non-European immigrants in recent decades has led to changes in this distinctive dialect.
The traditional New York area accent is non-rhotic, so that the sound Template:IPA does not appear at the end of a syllable or immediately before a consonant; hence the pronunciation of the city name as "New Yawk." There is no Template:IPA in words like park Template:IPA (with vowel raised due to the low-back chain shift), butter Template:IPA, or here Template:IPA. In another feature called the low back chain shift, the Template:IPA vowel sound of words like talk, law, cross, and coffee and the often homophonous Template:IPA in core and more are tensed and usually raised more than in General American.
In the most old-fashioned and extreme versions of the New York dialect, the vowel sounds of words like "girl" and of words like "oil" become a diphthong Template:IPA. This is often misperceived by speakers of other accents as a reversal of the er and oy sounds, so that girl is pronounced "goil" and oil is pronounced "erl"; this leads to the caricature of New Yorkers saying things like "Joizey" (Jersey), "Toidy-Toid Street" (33rd St.) and "terlet" (toilet). The character Archie Bunker from the 1970s sitcom All in the Family was a good example of a speaker who had this feature. This speech pattern is no longer prevalent.
There have been thirty-five Major League Baseball World Series won by New York teams. It is one of only five metro areas (Chicago, Washington-Baltimore, Los Angeles and the San Francisco Bay Area being the others) to have two baseball teams. The city's two current Major League Baseball teams are the New York Yankees and the New York Mets, who compete in six games every regular season called the Subway Series. The Yankees have won a record 27 championships, while the Mets have won the World Series twice. The city also was once home to the New York Giants (now the San Francisco Giants) and the Brooklyn Dodgers (now the Los Angeles Dodgers). Both teams moved to California in 1958. There are also two minor league baseball teams in the city, the Staten Island Yankees and Brooklyn Cyclones.
The city is represented in the National Football League by the New York Jets and New York Giants (officially the New York Football Giants), although both teams play their home games at New Meadowlands Stadium in nearby East Rutherford, New Jersey.
The New York Rangers represent the city in the National Hockey League. Within the metropolitan area are two other NHL franchises, the New Jersey Devils, who play in nearby Newark, New Jersey and appeal mostly to the fans of Northern and Central New Jersey, and the New York Islanders, who play in Nassau County, Long Island, comprising the only instance of a single metropolitan area having three teams within one of the four major North American professional sports leagues.
The city's National Basketball Association team is the New York Knicks and the city's Women's National Basketball Association team is the New York Liberty. Also within the metropolitan area is the NBA team New Jersey Nets, who are planning a move to nearby Brooklyn, where they will occupy the Barclays Center as early as 2012. The first national college-level basketball championship, the National Invitation Tournament, was held in New York in 1938 and remains in the city. Rucker Park in Harlem is a celebrated court where many professional athletes play in the summer league.
Queens is host of the U.S. Tennis Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. The New York is one of the world's largest, and the 2004–2006 events hold the top three places in the marathons with the largest number of finishers, including 37,866 finishers in 2006. The Millrose Games is an annual track and field meet whose featured event is the Wanamaker Mile. Boxing is also a prominent part of the city's sporting scene, with events like the Amateur Boxing Golden Gloves being held at Madison Square Garden each year.
Many sports are associated with New York's immigrant communities. Stickball, a street version of baseball, was popularized by youths in working class Italian, German, and Irish neighborhoods in the 1930s. A street in The Bronx has been renamed Stickball Blvd, as tribute to New York's most known street sport.
New York is a global hub of international business and commerce and is one of three "command centers" for the world economy (along with London and Tokyo). The city is a major center for finance, insurance, real estate, media and the arts in the United States.
The New York metropolitan area had approximately gross metropolitan product of $1.13 trillion in 2005, making it the largest regional economy in the United States and, according to IT Week, the second largest city economy in the world. According to Cinco Dias, New York controlled 40% of the world's finances by the end of 2008, making it the largest financial center in the world.
Many major corporations are headquartered in New York City, including 42 Fortune 500 companies. New York is also unique among American cities for its large number of foreign corporations. One out of ten private sector jobs in the city is with a foreign company.
Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the United States. Lower Manhattan is the third largest central business district in the United States, and is home to The New York Stock Exchange, located on Wall Street, and the NASDAQ, representing the world's first and second largest stock exchanges, respectively, when measured by average daily trading volume and overall market capitalization. Financial services account for more than 35% of the city's employment income.
Real estate is a major force in the city's economy, as the total value of all New York City property was $802.4 billion in 2006. The Time Warner Center is the property with the highest-listed market value in the city, at $1.1 billion in 2006. New York City is home to some of the nation's—and the world's—most valuable real estate. 450 Park Avenue was sold on July 2, 2007 for $510 million, about $1,589 per square foot ($17,104/m²), breaking the barely month-old record for an American office building of $1,476 per square foot ($15,887/m²) set in the June 2007 sale of 660 Madison Avenue.
The city's television and film industry is the second largest in the country after Hollywood. Creative industries such as new media, advertising, fashion, design and architecture account for a growing share of employment, with New York City possessing a strong competitive advantage in these industries.
High-tech industries like biotechnology, software development, game design, and internet services are also growing, bolstered by the city's position at the terminus of several transatlantic fiber optic trunk lines. Other important sectors include medical research and technology, non-profit institutions, and universities.
Manufacturing accounts for a large but declining share of employment. Garments, chemicals, metal products, processed foods, and furniture are some of the principal products. The food-processing industry is the most stable major manufacturing sector in the city. Food making is a $5 billion industry that employs more than 19,000 residents. Chocolate is New York City's leading specialty-food export, with $234 million worth of exports each year.
|City compared to State & U.S.|
|2000 Census||NY City||NY State||U.S.|
|Population, percent change, 1990 to 2000||+9.4%||+5.5%||+13.1%|
|Median household income (1999)||$38,293||$43,393||$41,994|
|Bachelor's degree or higher||27%||27%||29%|
|Hispanic (any race)||27%||15%||11%|
New York is the most populous city in the United States. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau estimated New York's population on July 1, 2009, to be 8,391,881 (up from 8.0 million in 2000 and 7.3 million in 1990). This amounts to about 40% of the state of New York's population and a similar percentage of the metropolitan regional population. Over the last decade the city has been growing rapidly and demographers estimate New York's population will reach between 9.2 and 9.5 million by 2030.
New York's two key demographic features are its density and ethnic diversity. In 2000, the city had an extremely high population density of 26,403 people per square mile (10,194/km²), about 10,000 more people per square mile than the next densest American city, San Francisco. As synonymous with New York County, Manhattan's population density is 66,940 people per square mile (25,846/km²), highest of any county in the United States.
New York City is exceptionally diverse. Throughout its history the city has been a major point of entry for immigrants; more than 12 million European immigrants passed through Ellis Island between 1892 and 1924. By 1900, New York City had more Italians than any city in Italy except Rome, more Poles than any city in Poland except Warsaw, as many Irish as Dublin, and more Jews than any other city in the world. The term "melting pot" was first coined to describe densely populated immigrant neighborhoods on the Lower East Side.
Approximately 36% of the city's population is foreign-born. Among American cities, this proportion is higher only in Los Angeles and Miami. While the immigrant communities in those cities are dominated by a few nationalities, in New York no single country or region of origin dominates. The ten largest countries of origin for modern day immigration are the Dominican Republic, China, Jamaica, Guyana, Mexico, Ecuador, Haiti, Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Russia. The largest ethnic groups in New York City are African American, Italian, Jewish, and Irish. The New York region continues to be the leading metropolitan gateway for legal immigrants admitted into the United States.
The New York City metropolitan area is home to the largest Jewish community outside Israel, and the city proper contains the largest Jewish community in the world. It is also home to nearly a quarter of the nation's South Asians, the largest African American community of any city in the country, and comprised as of 2008 a population of 659,596 ethnic Chinese, the largest outside of Asia. There is also a substantial Puerto Rican and Dominican population. Another historically significant ethnic group are Italians, who emigrated to the city in large numbers in the early twentieth century. The Irish also have a notable presence; one in 50 New Yorkers of European origin carries a distinctive genetic signature on the Y chromosome, inherited from the clan of Niall of the Nine Hostages, an Irish high king of the fifth century A.D. or from one of the related clans of Uí Briúin and Uí Fiachrach.
New York City has a high degree of income disparity. In 2005 the median household income in the wealthiest census tract was $188,697, while in the poorest it was $9,320. The disparity is driven by wage growth in high income brackets, while wages have stagnated for middle and lower income brackets. In 2006 the average weekly wage in Manhattan was $1,453, the highest and fastest growing among the largest counties in the United States. The borough is also experiencing a baby boom that is unique among American cities. Since 2000, the number of children under age 5 living in Manhattan grew by more than 32%.
Since its consolidation in 1898, New York City has been a metropolitan municipality with a "strong" mayor-council form of government. The government of New York is more centralized than that of most other U.S. cities. In New York City, the central government is responsible for public education, correctional institutions, libraries, public safety, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. The mayor and councillors are elected to four-year terms. The New York City Council is a unicameral body consisting of 51 Council members whose districts are defined by geographic population boundaries. The mayor and councilors are limited to three consecutive four-year terms but can run again after a four year break.
The present mayor is Michael Bloomberg, a former Democrat, former Republican (2001–2008) and current political independent elected on the Republican and Independence Party tickets against opponents supported by the Democratic and Working Families Parties in 2001 (50.3% of the vote to 47.9%), 2005 (58.4% to 39%) and 2009 (50.6% to 46%). He is known for taking control of the city's education system from the state, rezoning and economic development, sound fiscal management, and aggressive public health policy. In his second term he has made school reform, poverty reduction, and strict gun control central priorities of his administration. Together with Boston mayor Thomas Menino, in 2006 he founded the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, an organization with the goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The Democratic Party holds the majority of public offices. As of November 2008, 67% of registered voters in the city are Democrats. New York City has not been carried by a Republican in a statewide or presidential election since 1924. Party platforms center on affordable housing, education and economic development, and labor politics are of importance in the city.
New York is the most important source of political fundraising in the United States, as four of the top five ZIP codes in the nation for political contributions are in Manhattan. The top zip code, 10021 on the Upper East Side, generated the most money for the 2004 presidential campaigns of George W. Bush and John Kerry. The city has a strong imbalance of payments with the national and state governments. It receives 83 cents in services for every $1 it sends to the federal government in taxes (or annually sends $11.4 billion more than it receives back). The city also sends an additional $11 billion more each year to the state of New York than it receives back.
Each borough is coextensive with a judicial district of the New York Supreme Court and hosts other state and city courts. Manhattan also hosts the Supreme Court Appellate Division, First Department, while Brooklyn hosts the Appellate Division, Second Department. Federal courts located near City Hall include the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, and the Court of International Trade. Brooklyn hosts the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York.
Since 2005 the city has had the lowest crime rate among the 25 largest U.S. cities, having become significantly safer after a spike in crime in the 1980s and early 1990s from the crack epidemic that affected many neighborhoods. By 2002, New York City had about the same crime rate as Provo, Utah and was ranked 197th in crime among the 216 U.S. cities with populations greater than 100,000. Violent crime in New York City decreased more than 75% from 1993 to 2005 and continued decreasing during periods when the nation as a whole saw increases. In 2005 the homicide rate was at its lowest level since 1966, and in 2007 the city recorded fewer than 500 homicides for the first time ever since crime statistics were first published in 1963.
Sociologists and criminologists have not reached consensus on what explains the dramatic decrease in the city's crime rate. Some attribute the phenomenon to new tactics used by the New York City Police Department, including its use of CompStat and the broken windows theory. Others cite the end of the crack epidemic and demographic changes.
Organized crime has long been associated with New York City, beginning with the Forty Thieves and the Roach Guards in the Five Points in the 1820s. The 20th century saw a rise in the Mafia dominated by the Five Families. Gangs including the Black Spades also grew in the late 20th century. As early as 1850, New York City recorded more than 200 gang wars fought largely by youth gangs. The most prominent gangs in New York City today are the Bloods, Crips, Latin Kings, and MS-13.
The city's public school system, managed by the New York City Department of Education, is the largest in the United States. About 1.1 million students are taught in more than 1,200 separate primary and secondary schools. Charter schools, which are partly publicly funded, include Harlem Success Academy and Girls Prep. There are approximately 900 additional privately run secular and religious schools in the city. Though it is not often thought of as a college town, there are about 594,000 university students in New York City, the highest number of any city in the United States. In 2005, three out of five Manhattan residents were college graduates and one out of four had advanced degrees, forming one of the highest concentrations of highly educated people in any American city.
New York City is home to such notable private universities as Barnard College, Columbia University, Cooper Union, Fordham University, Macaulay Honors College, New York University, The New School, Pace University, and Yeshiva University. The city has dozens of other smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as St. John's University, The Juilliard School, The College of Mount Saint Vincent, and The School of Visual Arts.
Much of the scientific research in the city is done in medicine and the life sciences. New York City has the most post-graduate life sciences degrees awarded annually in the United States, 40,000 licensed physicians, and 127 Nobel laureates with roots in local institutions. The city receives the second-highest amount of annual funding from the National Institutes of Health among all U.S. cities. Major biomedical research institutions include Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Rockefeller University, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine and Weill Cornell Medical College.
The New York Public Library, which has the largest collection of any public library system in the country, serves Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island. Queens is served by the Queens Borough Public Library, which is the nation's second largest public library system, and Brooklyn Public Library serves Brooklyn. The New York Public Library has several research libraries, including the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture.
Mass transit in New York City, most of which runs 24 hours a day, is the most complex and extensive in North America. About one in every three users of mass transit in the United States and two-thirds of the nation's rail riders live in New York and its suburbs. The iconic New York City Subway system is the busiest in the Western Hemisphere, while Grand Central Terminal, also popularly referred to as "Grand Central Station", is the world's largest railway station by number of platforms. New York's airspace is one of the world's busiest air transportation corridors. The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest motor vehicle bridge.
Public transit is New York City's most popular mode of transit. 54.6% of New Yorkers commuted to work in 2005 using mass transit. This is in contrast to the rest of the United States, where about 90% of commuters drive automobiles to their workplace. According to the US Census Bureau, New York City residents spend an average of 38.4 minutes a day getting to work, the longest commute time in the nation among large cities.
New York City is served by Amtrak, which uses Pennsylvania Station. Amtrak provides connections to Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, D.C. along the Northeast Corridor and long-distance train service to cities such as Chicago, New Orleans, Miami, Toronto and Montreal. The Port Authority Bus Terminal, the main intercity bus terminal of the city, serves 7,000 buses and 200,000 commuters daily, making it the busiest bus station in the world.
The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world when measured by stations in operation, with 468. It is the third-largest when measured by annual ridership (1.5 billion passenger trips in 2006). New York's subway is also notable because nearly all the system remains open 24 hours a day, in contrast to the overnight shutdown common to systems in most cities, including London, Paris, Montreal, Washington, Madrid and Tokyo. The transportation system in New York City is extensive and complex. It includes the longest suspension bridge in North America, the world's first mechanically ventilated vehicular tunnel, more than 12,000 yellow cabs, an aerial tramway that transports commuters between Roosevelt Island and Manhattan, and a ferry system connecting Manhattan to various locales within and outside the city. The busiest ferry in the United States is the Staten Island Ferry, which annually carries over 19 million passengers on the 5.2-mile (8.4 km) run between Staten Island and Lower Manhattan. The Staten Island Railway rapid transit system solely serves Staten Island. The "PATH" train (short for Port Authority Trans-Hudson) links Midtown and Lower Manhattan to northeastern New Jersey, primarily Hoboken, Jersey City and Newark. Like the New York City Subway, the PATH operates 24 hours a day; meaning two of the four rapid transit systems in the world which operate on 24 hour schedules serve the island of Manhattan (the others are a portion of the Chicago "L" and PATCO).
New York City's public bus fleet and commuter rail network are the largest in North America. The rail network, connecting the suburbs in the tri-state region to the city, consists of the Long Island Rail Road, Metro-North Railroad and New Jersey Transit. The combined systems converge at Grand Central Terminal and Pennsylvania Station and contain more than 250 stations and 20 rail lines.
New York City is the top international air passenger gateway to the United States. The area is served by three major airports, John F. Kennedy International, Newark Liberty International and LaGuardia, with plans for a fourth airport, Stewart International Airport near Newburgh, NY, to be taken over and enlarged by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (which administers the other three airports), as a "reliever" airport to help cope with increasing passenger volume. 100 million travelers used the three airports in 2005 and the city's airspace is the busiest in the nation. Outbound international travel from JFK and Newark accounted for about a quarter of all U.S. travelers who went overseas in 2004.
New York's high rate of public transit use, 120,000 daily cyclists and many pedestrian commuters makes it the most energy-efficient major city in the United States. Walk and bicycle modes of travel account for 21% of all modes for trips in the city; nationally the rate for metro regions is about 8%.
To complement New York's vast mass transit network, the city also has an extensive web of expressways and parkways, that link New York City to northern New Jersey, Westchester County, Long Island, and southwest Connecticut through various bridges and tunnels. Because these highways serve millions of suburban residents who commute into New York, it is quite common for motorists to be stranded for hours in traffic jams that are a daily occurrence, particularly during rush hour. The George Washington Bridge is the world's busiest bridge in terms of vehicle traffic.
Despite New York's reliance on public transit, roads are a defining feature of the city. Manhattan's street grid plan greatly influenced the city's physical development. Several of the city's streets and avenues, like Broadway, Wall Street and Madison Avenue are also used as metonyms for national industries located there: the theater, finance, and advertising organizations, respectively.
|File:Emblem of Tokyo.svg||Tokyo||Kantō region (Honshū island)||30px Japan||1960|
|Cairo||Cairo Governorate||30px Egypt||1982|
|25px||Madrid||30px Community of Madrid||Template:Country data Spain ||1982|
|30px||Santo Domingo||30px National District||Template:Country data Dominican Republic||1983|
|50px||Budapest||Central Hungary||Template:Country data Hungary||1992|
|30px||Rome||30px Lazio (Latium)||Template:Country data Italy||1992|
|25px||Jerusalem||Jerusalem District||Template:Country data Israel||1993|
|22px||London||Template:Country data England||Template:Flagcountry||2001|
|45px||Johannesburg||35px Gauteng Province ||Template:Country data South Africa||2003|
Like New York City, all except Beijing are the most populous cities of their respective countries.
Unlike New York City, all but Johannesburg also serve as de facto or de jure national political capitals. New York and her sister cities are all major economic centers, but few of the sister cities share New York's status as a major seaport.
- Community Service Society of New York
- Hudson-Fulton Celebration of 1909
- Largest cities in the Americas
- Lists of New York City topics
- Brooklyn Bridge night lighted 1982.jpg
Night view of Brooklyn Bridge
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division, Table 5. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Minor Civil Divisions in New York, Listed Alphabetically Within County: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (SUB-EST2009-05-36) and Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2009 Population: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009 (SUB-EST2009-01), Release Date: June 2010, retrieved on July 31, 2010
- ↑ American Fact Finder (U.S. Census Bureau): New York by County - Table GCT-PH1. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2000 Data Set: Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data, retrieved on February 6, 2009
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 "NYC Profile" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. http://home2.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/lucds/nycprofile.pdf. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 Roberts, Sam (2008-05-22). "It's Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big". The New York Times (May 22, 2008). http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/22/nyregion/22shrink.html. Retrieved 2008-05-22.
- ↑ County and City Data Book:2007 (U.S. Census Bureau), Table B-1, Area and Population, retrieved on July 12, 2008. New York County (Manhattan) was the nation's densest-populated county, followed by Kings County (Brooklyn), Bronx County, Queens County and San Francisco, California.
- ↑ Shorto, Russell (2005). The Island at the Center of The World, 1st Edition. New York: Vintage Books. p. 30. ISBN 1-4000-7867-9 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ "The Nine Capitals of the United States". United States Senate. http://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_item/Nine_Capitals_of_the_United_States.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-07.
- ↑ "Rank by Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places, Listed Alphabetically by State: 1790–1990". U.S. Census Bureau. 1998-06-15. http://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0027/tab01.txt. Retrieved 2009-02-08.
- ↑ Roberts, Sam (2010-04-28). "Listening to (and Saving) the World's Languages". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/29/nyregion/29lost.html?hpw. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
- ↑ "The World's Most Expensive Real Estate Markets". CNBC. http://www.cnbc.com/id/29862382/The_World_s_Most_Expensive_Real_Estate_Markets?slide=9. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ Review, Princeton; Gilbert, Nedda (2009-10-06). The Best 301 Business Schools 2010 by Princeton Review, Nedda Gilbert. Random House Information Group. ISBN 9780375429590 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled]. http://books.google.com/?id=dWA7aEbsy8QC&pg=PA154&dq=new+york+financial+capital+of+the+world+2010&q=new%20york%20financial%20capital%20of%20the%20world%202010. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "Financial Capital of the World: NYC". Wired New York/Bloomberg. http://wirednewyork.com/forum/showthread.php?t=22541. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "The Tax Capital of the World". The Wall Street Journal. 2009-04-11. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123940286075109617.html. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "JustOneMinute – Editorializing From The Financial Capital Of The World". http://justoneminute.typepad.com/main/2010/04/editorializing-from-the-financial-capital-of-the-world.html. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "London may have the IPOs...". Marketwatch. http://www.marketwatch.com/story/credit-crunch-shows-new-york-is-still-worlds-financial-capital/. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "Fondos – Londres versus Nueva York" (in Spanish) (PDF). Cinco Dias. http://www.cincodias.com/articulo/mercados/Londres-versus-Nueva-York/20080901cdscdimer_3/cdsmer/. Retrieved 2010-05-30.
- ↑ "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1500–1700
- ↑ Rankin, Rebecca B., Cleveland Rodgers (1948). New York: the World's Capital City, Its Development and Contributions to Progress. Harper.
- ↑ Pieter Schaghen Letter 1626: "[...]hebben t'eylant Manhattes van de wilde gekocht, voor de waerde van 60 gulden: is groot 11000 morgen.[...]"("[...]They have purchased the Island Manhattes from the Indians for the value of 60 guilders. It is 11,000 morgens in size[...]
- ↑ "Value of the Guilder / Euro". International Institute of Social History. http://www.iisg.nl/hpw/calculate.php. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- ↑ "Letter describing purchase by Pieter Schaghen from Dutch National Archive, The Hague, with transscription". Nnp.org. http://www.nnp.org/nnp/documents/schagen_main.html. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- ↑ Miller, Christopher L., George R. Hamell; Hamell, George R (September 1986). "A New Perspective on Indian-White Contact: Cultural Symbols and Colonial Trade". The Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians) 73 (2): 311. doi:10.2307/1908224 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled]. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0021-8723%28198609%2973%3A2%3C311%3AANPOIC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-A. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- ↑ Homberger, Eric (2005). The Historical Atlas of New York City: A Visual Celebration of 400 Years of New York City's History. Owl Books. p. 34. ISBN 0805078428 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ "Native Americans". Penn Treaty Museum.
- ↑ "Gotham Center for New York City History" Timeline 1700–1800
- ↑ "Timeline of Yellow Fever in America". Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).
- ↑ "The Early History of Yellow Fever" (PDF). Pedro Nogueira, Thomas Jefferson University. 2009.
- ↑ Moore, Nathaniel Fish (1876). An Historical Sketch of Columbia College, in the City of New York, 1754–1876. Columbia College. p. 8.
- ↑ Trinity Church bicentennial celebration, May 5th, 1897 By Trinity Church (New York, N.Y.) p. 37
- ↑ "The People's Vote: President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)". U.S. News and World Report. http://www.usnews.com/usnews/documents/docpages/document_page11.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Ira Rosenwaike (1972)."Population history of New York City". p.55.
- ↑ Bridges, William (181 1). Map Of The City Of New York And Island Of Manhattan With Explanatory Remarks And References. ; Lankevich (1998), pp. 67–68.
- ↑ Mushkat, Jerome Mushkat (1990). Fernando Wood: A Political Biography. Kent State University Press. p. 36. ISBN 087338413X [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ "African-Americans in New York City, 1626–1863 by Leslie M. Harris". Department of History at Emory University.
- ↑ "Cholera in Nineteenth Century New York". VNY, City University of New York.
- ↑ Cook, Adrian (1974). The Armies of the Streets: The New York City Draft Riots of 1863. pp. 193–195.
- ↑ The 100 Year Anniversary of the Consolidation of the 5 Boroughs into New York City, New York City. Retrieved June 29, 2007.
- ↑ "Cornell University Library: Triangle Factory Fire". Cornell University. http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Ira Rosenwaike (1972)."Population history of New York City". p.78.
- ↑ "New York Urbanized Area: Population & Density from 1800 (Provisional)". Demographia.com. http://www.demographia.com/db-nyuza1800.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- ↑ Allen, Oliver E. (1993). "Chapter 9: The Decline". The Tiger – The Rise and Fall of Tammany Hall. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 020162463X [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ Burns, Ric (2003-08-22). "The Center of the World – New York: A Documentary Film (Transcript)". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/newyork/filmmore/pt.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Christopher Effgen (2001-09-11). "New York Crime Rates 1960 - 2009". Disastercenter.com. http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm. Retrieved 2010-10-28.
- ↑ "2008 9/11 Death Toll". Associated Press. July 2008. http://www.nysun.com/new-york/missing-doctor-added-to-list-of-9-11-victims/81626/. Retrieved 2006-09-11.
- ↑ "Report: WTC Faces Up To 3-Year Delay". Associated Press via New York Post. (New York, New York). 2008-06-30. http://www.nypost.com/seven/06302008/news/regionalnews/report__wtc_faces_up_to_3_year_delay_117912.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-05. [dead link]
- ↑ Washington, DC is 228 miles (367 km) driving distance from New York, and Boston is 217 miles (349 km) driving distance from New York. – Google Maps
- ↑ "Information about the Hudson River estuary". http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/marinebio/fc.1.estuaries.html.
- ↑ Berger, Joseph (2010-07-19). "Reclaimed Jewel Whose Attraction Can Be Perilous". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/20/nyregion/20river.html?ref=nyregion. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- ↑ Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press. p. 71. ISBN 0783897855 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ Lopate , Phillip (2004). Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press. ISBN 0385497148 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ Lundrigan, Margaret (2004). Staten Island: Isle of the Bay, NY. Arcadia Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 0738524433 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ Howard, David (2002). Outside Magazine's Urban Adventure New York City. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 35. ISBN 0393322122 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ "WXPART4". Public.asu.edu. http://www.public.asu.edu/~atrsc/wxpart4.htm#sun1. Retrieved 2010-09-25.
- ↑ "The Climate of New York". New York State Climate Office. http://nysc.eas.cornell.edu/climate_of_ny.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ "Weatherbase". New York State Climate Office. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weatherall.php3?s=330527&refer=&units=us. Retrieved 2008-11-11.
- ↑ www.weatherbase.com
- ↑ 58.0 58.1 Jervey, Ben (2006). The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City. Globe Pequot Press. ISBN 0762738359 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ "A Better Way to Go: Meeting America's 21st Century Transportation Challenges with Modern Public Transit" (PDF). U.S. Public Interest Research Group. March 2008. http://www.uspirg.org/uploads/2q/fV/2qfVu2ZrflTk-TnRQEDdDw/A-Better-Way-to-Go-vUSPIRG.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-23.
- ↑ Owen, David (October 18, 2004). "Green Manhattan". The New Yorker.
- ↑ 61.0 61.1 "Inventory of New York City Greenhouse Gas Emissions" (PDF). New York City Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability. April 2007. http://www.nyc.gov/html/om/pdf/ccp_report041007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ "Global Warming and Greenhouse Gases". PlaNYC/The City of New York. 2006-12-06. http://www.nyc.gov/html/planyc2030/html/challenge/faq.shtml. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Coburn, Jason, Jeffrey Osleeb, Michael Porter (June 2006). "Urban Asthma and the Neighbourhood Environment in New York City". Health & Place 12 (2): 167–179. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2004.11.002 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled]. PMID 16338632 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- ↑ DePalma, Anthony (December 11, 2005). "It Never Sleeps, but It's Learned to Douse the Lights". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/11/nyregion/11efficiency.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ "A Century of Buses in New York City". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on 2006-05-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20060525043420/http://mta.info/nyct/bus/centennial/page2.htm. Retrieved 2008-09-01. See also Sierra Club (July 1, 2005). "New York City's Yellow Cabs Go Green". Press release. Archived from the original on 2008-04-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20080418021037/http://www.sierraclub.org/pressroom/releases/pr2005-07-01a.asp. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ Newman, Andy (2010-07-27). "Appeals Court Rejects Effort to Create Hybrid Taxi Fleet". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/07/27/appeals-court-rejects-effort-to-create-hybrid-taxi-fleet/?emc=eta1. Retrieved 2010-07-31.
- ↑ 67.0 67.1 Pogrebin, Robin (April 16, 2006). "7 World Trade Center and Hearst Building: New York's Test Cases for Environmentally Aware Office Towers". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/16/arts/design/16gree.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
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- ↑ "U.S. International Travel and Transportation Trends, BTS02-03". U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics. 2002. http://www.bts.gov/publications/us_international_travel_and_transportation_trends/2002/index.html. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ "2005 Annual Airport Traffic Report" (PDF). The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. November 2, 2006. Archived from the original on June 5, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070605013009/http://www.panynj.gov/CommutingTravel/airports/pdfs/traffic/Air_Traffic_2005.pdf. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
- ↑ The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (August 29, 2005). "Port Authority Leads Nation in Record-Setting Year for Travel Abroad". Press release. http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressReleases/PressRelease/index.php?id=724. Retrieved 2007-02-18.
- ↑ Schaller, Bruce (June 2006). "Biking It". Gotham Gazette. http://www.gothamgazette.com/article/transportation/20060718/16/1910/. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ "2001 National Household Travel Survey: Summary of Travel Trends" (PDF). U.S. Department of Transportation. December 2004. http://nhts.ornl.gov/2001/pub/STT.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-01.
- ↑ George Washington Bridge turns 75 years old: Huge flag, cake part of celebration, Times Herald-Record, October 24, 2006. "The party, however, will be small in comparison to the one that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey organized for 5,000 people to open the bridge to traffic in 1931. And it won't even be on what is now the world's busiest bridge for fear of snarling traffic."
- ↑ "New York City Global Partners". The City of New York. 2010. http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/scp/html/sc/main.shtml. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- ↑ "Sister Cities". Beijing Municipal Government. http://www.ebeijing.gov.cn/Sister_Cities/Sister_City/. Retrieved 2009-06-23.
- ↑ Madrid city council webpage "Mapa Mundi de las ciudades hermanadas". Ayuntamiento de Madrid. http://www.munimadrid.es/portal/site/munimadrid/menuitem.dbd5147a4ba1b0aa7d245f019fc08a0c/?vgnextoid=4e84399a03003110VgnVCM2000000c205a0aRCRD&vgnextchannel=4e98823d3a37a010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD&vgnextfmt=especial1&idContenido=1da69a4192b5b010VgnVCM100000d90ca8c0RCRD Madrid city council webpage.
- ↑ occupies part of the former province of Transvaal
- ↑ The Statesman's Yearbook 2003, edited by Barry Turner, Palgrave Macmillan (Basingstoke, London and New York), 2002, ISBN 0-333-98096-4
- ↑ "Countries of the World", Whitaker's Almanack 1999 (Standard Edition), The Stationery Office, London, 1998, ISBN 0-11-702240-3, pages 781–785 & page 907
- Belden, E. Porter (1849). New York, Past, Present, and Future: Comprising a History of the City of New York, a Description of its Present Condition, and an Estimate of its Future Increase, New York, G.P. Putnam. from Google Books.
- Burgess, Anthony (1976). New York, Little, Brown & Co.
- Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike. Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-19-511634-8
- Federal Writers' Project (1939). The WPA Guide to New York City, The New Press (1995 reissue).
- Jackson, Kenneth T. (ed.), The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995. ISBN 0-300-05536-6
- Jackson, Kenneth T. and Dunbar, David S. (eds.) (2005), Empire City: New York Through the Centuries, Columbia University Press
- Lankevich, George L. (1998). American Metropolis: A History of New York City. NYU Press. ISBN 0814751865
[Interwiki transcluding is disabled].
- White, E.B. (1949). Here is New York, Little Bookroom (2000 reissue).
- White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot. AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.) New York: Three Rivers Press, 2000. ISBN 0-8129-3107-6.
- Whitehead, Colson (2003). The Colossus of New York: A City in 13 Parts, Doubleday.
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