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Harlem was annexed to New York City in 1873. It has been defined by a series of boom-and-bust cycles, with significant ethnic shifts accompanying each cycle.
Since the 1920s Harlem has been a major African-American residential, cultural, and business center. Black residents began to arrive en mass in 1904, fed by the Great Migration. In the 1920s and 1930s, the neighborhood was the locus of the "Harlem Renaissance", an outpouring of artistic and professional works without precedent in the American black community. However with job losses during the Great Depression and the de-industrialization of New York City after World War II, rates of poverty and crime increased significantly.
New York City's revival in the late 20th century extended to Harlem, which saw social and economic gentrification starting around 1995.
Location and boundaries
Historic Harlem stretches from the East River west to the Hudson River between 155th Street; where it meets Washington Heights—to a ragged border along the south. Central Harlem begins at 110th Street, at the northern boundary of Central Park; Spanish Harlem extends east Harlem's boundaries south to 96th Street, while in the west it begins north of Upper West Side, which gives an irregular border west of Morningside Avenue. Harlem's boundaries have changed over the years; as Ralph Ellison observed: "Wherever Negroes live uptown is considered Harlem."
The neighborhood contains a number of smaller, cohesive districts. The following are some examples:
- West Harlem (west of St. Nicholas Avenue and north of 123rd Street)
- Central Harlem
- Spanish Harlem, also known as East Harlem or El Barrio (east of Fifth Avenue)
The New York City Police Department patrols five precincts located within Harlem. The areas of West Harlem are served by the 30th Precinct, the areas of Central Harlem are served by the 28th and 32nd Precincts, and the areas of East Harlem are served by the 23rd and 25th Precincts.
Harlem is represented by New York's 15th congressional district, the New York State Senate's 30th district, the New York State Assembly's 68th and 70th districts, and the New York City Council's 7th, 8th, and 9th districts.
- ↑ Pierce, Carl Horton, et al. New Harlem Past and Present: the Story of an Amazing Civic Wrong, Now at Last to be Righted. New York: New Harlem Pub. Co., 1903.
- ↑ New York Magazine, Harlem article
- ↑ 30th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
- ↑ 28th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
- ↑ 32nd Precinct New York City Police Department.
- ↑ 23rd Precinct, New York City Police Department.
- ↑ 25th Precinct, New York City Police Department.
|40x40px||Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Harlem|
- New York and Harlem Railroad and the Harlem Valley line.
- Harlem and the Heights - New York Architecture Images
- 13 Gigapixel panorama
- The National Jazz Museum in Harlem
- Harlem riot 1964 Urban riots of the 1960s.
- Portraits of Harlem