Greenwich Village

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Greenwich Village Historic District
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. Historic District
Washington Square Park, in the heart of Greenwich Village
Location: Bounded by: W 14st Street on the North; W Houston Street on the South; the Hudson River on the West, Broadway on the East
Coordinates: 40°44′2″N 74°0′4″W / 40.73389°N 74.00111°W / 40.73389; -74.00111Coordinates: 40°44′2″N 74°0′4″W / 40.73389°N 74.00111°W / 40.73389; -74.00111
Built/Founded: 1799
Architectural style(s): Mid 19th Century Revival, Italianate, Federal
Governing body: State
Added to NRHP: June 19, 1979
NRHP Reference#: 79001604


Greenwich Village (pronounced /ˌɡrɛnɨtʃ ˈvɪlɨdʒ/[2]), in New York often simply called "the Village", is a largely residential neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan in New York City. A large majority of the district is home to upper middle class families. Greenwich Village, however, was known in the late 19th to mid 20th centuries as the bohemian capital and the East Coast birthplace of the Beat movement. What provided the initial attractive character of the community eventually contributed to its gentrification and commercialization.[3]

The name of the village is Anglicized from the Dutch name Groenwijck, meaning "Pine District", into its near heterograph Greenwich, a borough of London, England.[4]



The neighborhood is bounded by Broadway on the east, the Hudson River on the west, Houston Street on the south, and 14th Street on the north. The neighborhoods surrounding it are the East Village to the east, SoHo and Hudson Square to the south, and Chelsea to the north. The East Village was formerly considered part of the Lower East Side and never associated with Greenwich Village.[5] The West Village is the area of Greenwich Village west of 7th Avenue, though realtors have moved the dividing line east to 6th Avenue. The neighborhood is located in New York's 8th congressional district, New York's 25th State Senate district, New York's 66th State Assembly district, and New York City Council's 3rd district.

Into the early 20th century Greenwich Village was distinguished from the upper class neighborhood of Washington SquareTemplate:Ndash based on the major landmark Washington Square Park[6] or Empire Ward[7] in the 19th century.

Encyclopædia Britannica's 1956 article on "New York (City)" (subheading "Greenwich Village") states that the southern border of the Village is Spring Street, reflecting an earlier understanding. The newer district of SoHo has since encroached on the Village's historic border.

Grid plan

File:West 4th and West 12th Intersection.JPG
The intersection of West 4th and West 12th Streets

As Greenwich Village was once a rural hamlet, to the north of the earliest European settlement on Manhattan Island, its street layout is more haphazard than the grid pattern of the 19th-century grid plan (based on the Commissioners' Plan of 1811). Greenwich Village was allowed to keep its street pattern in areas west of Greenwich Lane (now Greenwich Avenue) and Sixth Avenue, which were already built up when the plan was implemented, resulting in a neighborhood whose streets are dramatically different, in layout, from the ordered structure of newer parts of town. Many of the neighborhood's streets are narrow and some curve at odd angles. Additionally, unlike most of Manhattan above Houston Street, streets in the Village typically are named rather than numbered. While some of the formerly named streets (including Factory, Herring and Amity Streets) are now numbered, even they do not always conform to the usual grid pattern when they enter the neighborhood. For example, West 4th Street, which runs east-west outside of the Village, turns and runs north, crossing West 10th, 11th, 12th, and 13th Streets.

A large section of Greenwich Village, made up of more than 50 northern and western blocks in the area up to 14th Street, is part of a Historic District established by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. The District's convoluted borders run no farther south than 4th Street or St. Luke's Place, and no farther east than Washington Square East or University Place.[8] Redevelopment in that area is severely restricted, and developers must preserve the main facade and aesthetics of the buildings even during renovation.

Most parts of Greenwich Village comprise mid-rise apartments, 19th-century row houses and the occasional one-family walk-up, a sharp contrast to the hi-rise landscape in Mid- and Downtown Manhattan, due to the lack of shallow bedrock.


File:Greenwich Village map circa 1760 - Project Gutenberg eText 16907.jpg
Map of old Greenwich Village. A section of Bernard Ratzer's map of New York and its suburbs, made circa 1766 for Henry Moore, Royal Governor of New York, when Greenwich was more than two miles from the city.

In the 16th century Native Americans referred to its farthest northwest corner, by the cove on the Hudson River at present-day Gansevoort Street, as Sapokanikan ("tobacco field"). The land was cleared and turned into pasture by Dutch and freed African settlers in the 1630s, who named their settlement Noortwyck. In the 1630s Governor Wouter van Twiller farmed tobacco on 200 acres here at his "Farm in the Woods".[9] The English conquered the Dutch settlement of New Netherland in 1664 and Greenwich Village developed as a hamlet separate from the larger (and fast-growing) New York City to the south.

It officially became a village in 1712 and is first referred to as Grin'wich in 1713 Common Council records. Sir Peter Warren began accumulating land in 1731 and built a frame house capacious enough to hold a sitting of the Assembly when smallpox rendered the city dangerous in 1739. His house, which survived until the Civil War era, overlooked the North River from a bluff; its site on the block bounded by Perry and Charles Streets, Bleecker and West 4th Streets,[10] can still be recognized by its mid-19th century rowhouses inserted into a neighborhood still retaining many houses of the 1830-37 boom.

The oldest house remaining in Greenwich Village is the Isaacs-Hendricks House, at 77 Bedford Street (built 1799, much altered and enlarged 1836, third storey 1928).[11] In 1822, a yellow fever epidemic in New York encouraged residents to flee to the healthier air of Greenwich Village, and afterwards many stayed. The future site of Washington Square was a potter's field from 1797 to 1823 when 10 to 20,000 of New York's poor were buried here, and still remain. The handsome Greek revival rowhouses on the north side of Washington Square were built about 1832, establishing the fashion of Washington Square and lower Fifth Avenue for decades to come. Well into the 19th century the district of Washington Square was considered separate from Greenwich Village.

Greenwich Village is generally known as an important landmark on the map of American bohemian culture. The neighborhood is known for its colorful, artistic residents and the alternative culture they propagate. Due in part to the progressive attitudes of many of its residents, the Village has traditionally been a focal point of new movements and ideas, whether political, artistic, or cultural. This tradition as an enclave of avant-garde and alternative culture was established by the beginning of the 20th century when small presses, art galleries, and experimental theater thrived.

In 1914, in one of the many Manhattan properties Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney and her husband owned, Gertrude Whitney established the Whitney Studio Club at 8 West 8th Street as a facility where young artists could exhibit their works. The place would evolve to become her greatest legacy, the Whitney Museum of American Art, on the site of today's New York Studio School of Drawing, Painting and Sculpture. The Whitney was founded in 1931, as an answer to the then newly founded (1928) Museum of Modern Art's collection of mostly European modernism and its neglect of American Art. Gertrude Whitney decided to put the time and money into the museum after the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art turned down her offer to contribute her twenty-five-year collection of modern art works.[12]

File:181 8193.JPG
Cherry Lane Theatre is also located in Greenwich Village

In 1924 the Cherry Lane Theatre was established. Located at 38 Commerce Street it is New York City's oldest continuously running off-Broadway theater. A landmark in Greenwich Village’s cultural landscape, it was built as a farm silo in 1817, and also served as a tobacco warehouse and box factory before Edna St. Vincent Millay and other members of the Provincetown Players converted the structure into a theatre they christened the Cherry Lane Playhouse, which opened on March 24, 1924, with the play The Man Who Ate the Popomack. During the 1940s The Living Theatre, Theatre of the Absurd, and the Downtown Theater movement all took root there, and it developed a reputation as a place where aspiring playwrights and emerging voices could showcase their work.

In 1936, the renowned Abstract Expressionist artist and teacher Hans Hofmann moved his art school from E. 57th Street to 52 West 9th Street. In 1938, Hofmann moved again to a more permanent home at 52 West 8th Street. The school remained active until 1958 when Hofmann retired from teaching.[13]

During the golden age of bohemianism, Greenwich Village became famous for such eccentrics as Joe Gould (profiled at length by Joseph Mitchell) and Maxwell Bodenheim, dancer Isadora Duncan, writer William Faulkner, and playwright Eugene O'Neill. Political rebellion also made its home here, whether serious (John Reed) or frivolous (Marcel Duchamp and friends set off balloons from atop Washington Square arch, proclaiming the founding of "The Independent Republic of Greenwich Village"). In Christmas 1949, The Weavers played at the Village Vanguard.

The Village again became important to the bohemian scene during the 1950s, when the Beat Generation focused their energies there. Fleeing from what they saw as oppressive social conformity, a loose collection of writers, poets, artists, and students (later known as the Beats) and the Beatniks, moved to Greenwich Village, and to North Beach in San Francisco; in many ways creating the east coast-west coast predecessor to the Haight-Ashbury-East Village hippie scene of the next decade. The Village (and surrounding New York City) would later play central roles in the writings of, among others, Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, William S. Burroughs, James Baldwin, Truman Capote, Marianne Moore, Maya Angelou, Rod McKuen, and Dylan Thomas who collapsed while drinking at the White Horse Tavern on November 5, 1953.

Off-Off-Broadway began in Greenwich Village in 1958 as a reaction to Off-Broadway, and a "complete rejection of commercial theatre".[14] Among the first venues for what would soon be called "Off-Off-Broadway" (a term supposedly coined by critic Jerry Tallmer of the Village Voice) were coffeehouses in Greenwich Village, particularly the Caffe Cino at 31 Cornelia Street, operated by the eccentric Joe Cino, who early on took a liking to actors and playwrights and agreed to let them stage plays there without bothering to read the plays first, or to even find out much about the content. Also integral to the rise of Off-Off-Broadway were Ellen Stewart at La MaMa, originally located at 321 E. 9th Street and Al Carmines at the Judson Poets' Theater, located at Judson Memorial Church on the south side of Washington Square Park.

The Village had a cutting-edge music scene. The Village Gate, the Village Vanguard and The Blue Note (since 1981), hosted some of the biggest names in jazz on a regular basis. Greenwich Village also played a major role in the development of the folk music scene of the 1960s. Music clubs included Gerde's Folk City, The Bitter End, Cafe Au Go Go, Cafe Wha?, The Gaslight Cafe and the Bottom Line. Three of the four members of The Mamas & the Papas met there. Guitarist and folk singer Dave Van Ronk lived there for many years. Village resident Bob Dylan was one of the foremost popular songwriters in the country, and often developments in New York City would influence the simultaneously occurring folk rock movement in San Francisco, and vice versa. Dozens of other cultural and popular icons got their start in the Village's nightclub, theater, and coffeehouse scene during the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s, notably Barbra Streisand, Peter, Paul, and Mary, Simon & Garfunkel, Jackson Browne, James Taylor, Eric Andersen, Joan Baez, The Velvet Underground, The Kingston Trio, Richie Havens, Maria Muldaur, Tom Paxton, Phil Ochs, Joni Mitchell, Laura Nyro, Jimi Hendrix and Nina Simone. The Greenwich Village of the 1950s and 1960s was at the center of Jane Jacobs's book The Death and Life of Great American Cities, which defended it and similar communities, while critiquing common urban renewal policies of the time.

Founded by New York based artist Mercedes Matter and her students the New York Studio School of Drawing, Painting and Sculpture is an art school formed in the mid 1960s. The school officially opened September 23, 1964, it is still currently active and it is housed at 8 W. 8th Street, the site of the original Whitney Museum of American Art.[15]

Greenwich Village was also home to one of the many safe houses used by the radical anti-war movement known as the Weather Underground. On March 6, 1970, however, their safehouse was destroyed when an explosive they were constructing was accidentally detonated, costing three Weathermen (Ted Gold, Terry Robbins, and Diana Oughton) their lives.

In recent days, the Village has maintained its role as a center for movements which have challenged the wider American culture: for example, its role in the gay liberation movement. It contains Christopher Street and the Stonewall Inn, important landmarks, as well as the world's oldest gay and lesbian bookstore, Oscar Wilde Bookshop, founded in 1967. The Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual & Transgender Community Center - best known as simply "The Center" - has occupied the former Food & Maritime Trades High School at 208 West 13th Street since 1984. In 2006, the Village was the scene of an assault involving seven lesbians and a straight man that sparked appreciable media attention, with strong statements both defending and attacking the parties.

Since the 1960s

File:Jefferson market.jpg
Jefferson Market Library, once a courthouse, now serves as a branch of the New York Public Library.

Currently, artists and local historians mourn the fact that the bohemian days of Greenwich Village are long gone, because of the extraordinarily high housing costs in the neighborhood.[16][17][18][19][20][21] The artists have fled to first to SoHo then to TriBeCa and finally Williamsburg[17] and Bushwick[citation needed] in Brooklyn, Long Island City,[17] and DUMBO.[citation needed] Nevertheless, residents of Greenwich Village still possess a strong community identity and are proud of their neighborhood's unique history and fame, and its well-known liberal live-and-let-live attitudes.[20]

File:Greenwich Village.jpg
Greenwich Village

Greenwich Village is now home to many celebrities, including actresses/actors Julianne Moore, Liv Tyler, Uma Thurman, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Leontyne Price, Amy Sedaris, and Barbara Pierce Bush, the daughter of former U.S. President George W. Bush; Thurman and Bush both live on West Ninth Street.[22] American designer Marc Jacobs[23] as well as CNN anchor Anderson Cooper[24] lives in the neighborhood. Alt-country/folk musician Steve Earle moved to the neighborhood in 2005,[25] and his album Washington Square Serenade is primarily about his experiences in the Village. The Village also serves as home to Anna Wintour, the editor-in-chief of Vogue Magazine as well as Calvin Trillin, a feature writer for The New Yorker magazine.

Greenwich Village includes the primary campus for New York University (NYU), The New School, and Yeshiva University's Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law. Parsons The New School for Design, a division of The New School, is located at 66 Fifth Avenue on 13th Street in the newly renovated, award winning design of the Sheila C. Johnson Design Center. The Cooper Union is also located in Greenwich Village, at Astor Place, near St. Mark's Place on the border of the East Village. Pratt Institute established its latest Manhattan campus in an adaptively reused Brunner & Tryon designed loft building on 14th Street just east of Seventh Avenue,

The historic Washington Square Park is the center and heart of the neighborhood, but the Village has several other, smaller parks: Father Fagan, Minetta Triangle, Petrosino Square, Little Red Square, and Time Landscape. There are also city playgrounds, including Desalvio, Minetta, Thompson Street, Bleecker Street, Downing Street, Mercer Street, and William Passannante Ballfield. Perhaps the most famous, though, is "The Cage", officially known as the West 4th Street Courts. Sitting on top of the West Fourth Street–Washington Square subway station at Sixth Avenue, the courts are easily accessible to basketball and American handball players from all over New York. The Cage has become one of the most important tournament sites for the city-wide "Streetball" amateur basketball tournament.

The Village also has a bustling performing arts scene. It is still home to many Off-Broadway and Off-Off-Broadway theaters; for instance, Blue Man Group has taken up residence in the Astor Place Theater. The Village Gate (until 1992), the Village Vanguard and The Blue Note are still presenting some of the biggest names in jazz on a regular basis. Other music clubs include The Bitter End, and Lion's Den. The village also has its own orchestra aptly named the Greenwich Village Orchestra. Comedy clubs dot the Village as well, including The Boston and Comedy Cellar, where many American stand-up comedians got their start.

Each year on October 31, it is home to New York's Village Halloween Parade, the largest Halloween event in the country, drawing an audience of two million from throughout the region.

Several publications have offices in the Village, most notably the citywide newsweekly The Village Voice, and the monthly magazines Fortune and American Heritage. The National Audobon Society, having relocated its national headquarters from a mansion in Carnegie Hill to a restored and very green, former industrial building in NoHo, relocated to smaller but even greener LEED certified digs at 225 Varick Street, a short ways down Houston Street from the Film Forum.


Historically, local residents and preservation groups, including the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation (GVSHP), have been concerned about development in the Village and have fought to preserve the architectural and historic integrity of the neighborhood. In the 1960s, Margot Gayle led a group of citizens to preserve the Jefferson Market Courthouse (later reused as Jefferson Market Library)[26] while other citizen groups fought to keep traffic out of Washington Square Park[27] and Jane Jacobs, using the Village as an example of a vibrant urban community, advocated to keep it that way.

Since then, preservation has been a part of the Village ethos. Preservation success stories abound in the neighborhood, which was landmarked in 1969 by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Victories for preservationists, oftentimes spearheaded by GVSHP, include the preservation of the Greenwich Village waterfront and Meatpacking District; the inclusion of the Far West Village in the Greenwich Village Historic District;[28] the creation of the Weehawken Street Historic District;[29] and the downzoning of the Far West Village.[30] Additionally, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission began the process of landmarking the South Village in June 2009.[31]

More recent and on-going preservation issues in the Village include: New York University's (NYU) expansion into the neighborhood;[32][33] St. Vincent’s Hospital’s rebuilding plans;[34] overdevelopment in the Far West Village;[28] and threats to local theaters,[35] including the Provincetown Playhouse,[36] the Yiddish Art Theater,[37] and the Variety Theater.

In media

File:90 Bedford Street.jpg
90 Bedford Street, Winter 2006-2007


Greenwich Village residents are zoned to schools in the New York City Department of Education.

Residents are jointly zoned to two elementary schools: PS3 Melser Charrette School and PS41 Greenwich Village School. Residents are zoned to Baruch Middle School 104.

Residents must apply to New York City high schools.

Greenwich Village is home to New York University which owns large sections of the area and most of the buildings around Washington Square Park. To the north is the campus of The New School, which is houses in several buildings that are considered historical landmarks because of their innovative architecture.[43] New School's Sheila Johnson Design Center also doubles as a public art gallery.[44] Cooper Union, one of the most selective art schools in the world, is located in the East Village.

Notable residents

Sullivan St. was home to Genovese crime family boss Vincent "The Chin" Gigante. Born and raised in the Village he would spend most of his adult life there during the day. According to F.B.I. surveillance reports, after midnight, he would be driven to a townhouse at East 77th Street near Park Avenue where he actually lived. Popularly known as the "Oddfather," Gigante feigned senility by walking around the area in a bathrobe, in the hopes of eventually entering an insanity plea.[45]
  • Justice Sonia Sotomayor, judge on the U.S. Supreme Court lived on Bedford Street.[46]
  • Jane Jacobs: 1916-2006: urbanist, writer, activist
  • Anna Wintour, editor in chief of Vogue, has a home in Greenwich Village. Condé Nast Publications Ltd. reportedly gave her a $1.2 million interest-free loan to purchase it.
  • Joseph Brodsky: 1940–1996: Soviet-Russian-American poet, essayist, and 1987 Nobel Laureate in Literature.

See also

Notes and references

  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  2. (pronounced /ˈɡrɛnɨtʃ/ Template:Sc-itch, Template:IPA Template:Sc-idge, Template:IPA Template:Sc-itch), or Template:IPA Template:Sc-idge), see American Heritage Dictionary entry "Greenwich+Village"
  3. Strenberg, Adam (2007-11-12). "Embers of Gentrification". New York Magazine: pp. 5. 
  4. Dutch colonist Yellis Mandeville, who moved to the Village in the 1670s, called it Groenwijck after the settlement on Long Island, where he previously lived. Earlier, during the period of Dutch control over the area, the Village was called Noortwyck ("Northern District", because of its location north of the original settlement on Manhattan Island).[1]
  5. F.Y.I., "When did the East Village become the East Village and stop being part of the Lower East Side?", Jesse McKinley, New York Times, June 1, 1995; accessed August 26, 2008.
  6. "Village History". The Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. Retrieved 2008-01-05. ; Joyce Gold, From Trout Stream to Bohemia: a walking guide to Greenwich Village history 1988:6
  7. Harris, Luther S. (2003). Around Washington Square: An Illustrated History of Greenwich Village. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-080187341-6 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled]. 
  8. Landmark Maps: Historic District Maps: Manhattan
  9. Gold 1988:2
  10. Gold 1988:3
  11. Kevin Walsh, Forgotten New York: The Ultimate Urban Explorer's Guide to All Five Boroughs, 2006:155.
  12. Berman, Avis (1990). Rebels on Eighth Street: Juliana Force and the Whitney Museum of American Art. New York: Atheneum. 
  13. Hans Hofmann Estate, retrieved December 19, 2008
  14. Viagas (2004, 72)
  15. History of the NY Studio School, retrieved December 19, 2008
  16. Roberts, Rex (2002-07-29). "When Greenwich Village was a Bohemian paradise". Insight on the News. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Harris, Paul (2005-08-14). "New York's heart loses its beat". Arts (London: Guardian Unlimited).,11711,1548962,00.html. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  18. Kugelmass, Jack (November 1993). ""The Fun Is in Dressing up": The Greenwich Village Halloween Parade and the Reimagining of Urban Space". Social Text 36 (36): 138–152. doi:10.2307/466393 [Interwiki transcluding is disabled]. 
  19. Lydersen, Kari (1999-03-15). "SHAME OF THE CITIES: Gentrification in the New Urban America". LiP Magazine. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Desloovere, Hesper (2007-11-15). "City Living: Greenwich Village". New York City (Newsday).,0,4295838.story. Retrieved 2007-12-02. 
  21. Fieldsteel, Patricia (2005-10-19). "Remembering a time when the Village was affordable". The Villager (New York: Community Media LLC) 75 (22). 
  22. "Secure Location". New York Post. 2006-09-11. 
  23. "Secure Location". New York Post. 
  24. "Secure Location". Bowery Boogie. 
  25. Seabrook, John (June 11, 2007). "Transplant". The New Yorker. 
  26. The New York Times (September 30, 2008). "Margot Gayle, Urban Preservationist and Crusader With Style, Dies at 100". Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  27. The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. "Shirley Hayes and the Preservation of Washington Square Park". 
  28. 28.0 28.1 The Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. "Far West Village Districts Unanimously Approved!". 
  29. New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. "Weehawken Street Historic District Designation Report". 
  30. New York City Department of City Planning. "Far West Village Zoning Proposal – Approved!". 
  31. New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. "Greenwich Village Historic District Extension II Presentation". 
  32. The Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. "Latest News on NYU in the Village". 
  33. The Villager. "Two hundred turn out to try to head off N.Y.U growth". 
  34. The Villager. "Landmarks approves residential part of St. Vincent’s rebuild plan". 
  35. The Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. "Latest News on Preserving Local Theaters". 
  36. The New York Times (May 17, 2008). "Revised Plan by N.Y.U. Would Preserve Walls of Provincetown Playhouse". Retrieved May 4, 2010. 
  37. The Villager. "A curtain (of netting) comes down on historic theater". 
  38. The Angelika Film Center was said to be "up the block" from Central Perk in "The One Where Ross Hugs Rachel", the sixth season's second episode, placing the coffee house on Mercer Street or Houston.
  39. This address was given "The One With Joey's New Brain", episode 7-15.
  40. Filming locations for Friends
  41. Hudson Street Loft at
  42. Template:Youtube.[unreliable source?]
  43. The New School
  44. The New School: Johnson Design Center
  45. Raab, Selwyn (December 19, 2005). "Vincent Gigante, Mafia Leader Who Feigned Insanity, Dies at 77". New York Times. .
  46. Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (May 26, 2009). "Sotomayor, a Trailblazer and a Dreamer". New York Times. .

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