East Harlem

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Spanish Harlem, also known as El Barrio and East Harlem,[1] is a neighborhood in Harlem, a neighborhood of New York City, New York, United States, in the north-eastern part of the borough of Manhattan. Spanish Harlem is one of the largest predominantly Latino communities in New York City. It includes the area formerly known as Italian Harlem, and still harbors a small Italian American population along Pleasant Avenue. However, since the 1950s it has been dominated by residents of Puerto Rican descent, sometimes called Nuyoricans. The neighborhood boundaries are Harlem River to the north, the East River to the east, East 96th Street to the south, and 5th Avenue to the west.[2] The neighborhood is part of Manhattan Community Board 11. The primary business hub of Spanish Harlem has historically been East 116th Street from 5th Avenue headed east to its termination at the FDR Drive. The area is patrolled by both the 23rd Precinct located at 162 East 102nd Street[3] and the 25th Precinct located at 120 East 119th Street.[4]

Contents

Demographics

Manhattan Community District 11, which covers Spanish Harlem and a part of the Upper East Side, has a population of 117,743 as of the 2000 US census. Over 25% of the population resides in units managed by the NYCHA. It also has one of the highest concentrations of Puerto Ricans in all of New York City. The vast majority of units in Spanish Harlem are renter-occupied.[5]

History

Looking from south to north towards Spanish Harlem.

The construction of the elevated transit to Harlem in the 1880s urbanized the area, precipitating the construction of apartment buildings and brownstones. Harlem was first populated by German immigrants, but soon after Irish, Italian, Lebanese and Russian Jewish immigrants began settling in Harlem. In East Harlem, Southern Italians and Sicilians soon predominated and the neighborhood became known as Italian Harlem, the Italian American hub of Manhattan. In 1895, Union Settlement Association, one of the oldest settlement houses in New York City, began providing services in the neighborhood, offering the immigrant and low-income residents a range of community-based programs, including boys and girls clubs, a sewing school and adult education classes.

Puerto Rican immigration after the First World War established an enclave at the western portion of Italian Harlem (around 110th Street and Lexington Avenue), which became known as Spanish Harlem. The area slowly grew to encompass all of Italian Harlem as Italians moved out and Hispanics moved in another wave of immigration after the Second World War.

In the 1920s and early 1930s, Italian Harlem was represented by future Mayor Fiorello La Guardia in Congress, and later by Italian-American socialist Vito Marcantonio. Italian Harlem lasted in some parts into the 1970s in the area around Pleasant Avenue. It still celebrates the first Italian feast in New York City, Our Lady of Mount Carmel. Some remnants of Italian Harlem, such as Rao's restaurant, started in 1896, and the original Patsy's Pizzeria which opened in the 1933, still remain.

Spanish Harlem was one of the hardest hit areas in the 1960s and 1970s as New York City struggled with deficits, race riots, urban flight, drug abuse, crime and poverty. Tenements were crowded, poorly maintained and frequent targets for arson. In 1969 and 1970, a regional chapter of the Young Lords which were reorganized from a neighborhood street gang in Chicago by Jose (Cha-Cha) Jimenez, ran several programs including a Free Breakfast for Children and a Free Health Clinic to help Latino and poor families. The Young Lords coalesced with the Black Panthers and called for Puerto Rican self-determination and neighborhood empowerment. Today the Latin Kings are prevalent in Spanish Harlem.

With the growth of the Hispanic population, the neighborhood is expanding. It is also home to one of the few major television studios north of midtown, Metropolis (106th St. and Park Ave.), where shows like BET's 106 & Park and Chappelle's Show have been produced. PRdream.com, the 12-year old, award-winning web site on the history and culture of Puerto Ricans, altered the cultural landscape of Spanish Harlem with the founding of its new media gallery and digital film studio called MediaNoche in 2003. MediaNoche (www.medianoche.us) continues to present technology-based art on Park Avenue and 102nd Street, providing exhibition space and residencies for artists and filmmakers working in new media. They regularly web cast events and PRdream.com (www.prdream.com) continues to collect oral histories and conduct screenings.

Major medical care providers include Metropolitan Hospital Center, North General Hospital and Mount Sinai Hospital, which serves residents of East Harlem and the Upper East Side. Many of the graduates of the Mount Sinai School of Medicine have pursued careers in public health initiatives critical to East Harlem, including the battle against asthma, diabetes, unsafe drinking water, lead paint and infectious diseases.

Many famous artists have lived and worked in Spanish Harlem, including the renowned timbalero Tito Puente (110th Street was renamed “Tito Puente Way”), Jazz legend Ray Barretto and one of Puerto Rico’s most famous poets, Julia de Burgos among others. Piri Thomas wrote a best-selling autobiography titled, "Down These Mean Streets" in 1967. Also the contemporary artist Soraida Martinez, the painter and creator of "Verdadism," was born in Spanish Harlem in 1956. Most recently, Assemblyman Nelson Antonio Denis wrote and directed Vote For Me!, a feature film about Spanish Harlem politics.[6][7][8]

The Harbor Conservatory for the Performing Arts, home to the Raices Latin Music Museum, a Smithsonian Affiliate, serves as a focus for theatre, dance, and musical performance in the neighborhood, as well as its hosting the annual competition to award the Charlie Palmieri Memorial Piano Scholarship, a scholarship established in Palmieri's memory by Tito Puente for the benefit of intermediate and advanced young (12-25) pianists' study of Latin-style piano.[9]

All Saints Roman Catholic Church; Madison and East 129th

El Museo del Barrio, a museum of Latin American and Caribbean art and culture is located on nearby Museum Mile and endeavors to serve some of the cultural needs of the neighboring community. The Museum of the City of New York is immediately south, followed by the New York Academy of Medicine. The Conservatory Garden is just across Fifth Avenue from the museums. The Museum for African Art will join these to the north at Duke Ellington Circle. There is a diverse collection of religious institutions in East Harlem: from mosques, a Greek Orthodox monastery, several Roman Catholic churches, including Church of the Holy Rosary (New York City), and a traditional Russian Orthodox church. A former church was transformed into the home of the National Museum of Catholic Art and History.

Despite the moniker of "Spanish Harlem" or "El Barrio," the region is now home to a new influx of immigrants from around the world. Yemeni merchants, for example, work in local convenience stores alongside immigrants from the Dominican Republic. Italians live next to the influx of Central and South American immigrant populations. Other businessmen and local neighbors can be Korean, Chinese or Haitian in origin. The rising price of living in Manhattan has also caused increasing numbers of young urban professionals, mainly Caucasians, to move in and take advantage of the inexpensive rents, relative to the adjacent neighborhoods of Yorkville and Carnegie Hill.

Despite attempts by some businesses and residents to use trendy and gentrification-safe marks such as “SpaHa,” or “Upper Yorkville,” a growing Mexican and Spanish population (in addition to Central and South Americans and Caribbeans) are ensuring the continued use of the “Spanish Harlem,” or “El Barrio” designation to this community. Many non-Hispanics new to the neighborhood also respect the traditional names.

In popular culture

The entirety of the feature film Vote For Me! takes place in current-day Spanish Harlem, and was written and directed by New York State Assemblyman Nelson Antonio Denis.[6][10][11] Philippe Bourgois spent time in El Barrio and wrote an ethnography, called "In Search of Respect", with the help of a few key people in the crack-selling subculture of El Barrio. Spanish Harlem was recognized in the Ben E. King's R&B song, "Spanish Harlem," The Mamas & the Papas' song, "Spanish Harlem," and in Louie Ramirez's latin soul song, "Lucy's Spanish Harlem," as well as being the source of the title for the Bob Dylan song "Spanish Harlem Incident." It was also mentioned in Elton John's song "Mona Lisas and Mad Hatters" and Carlos Santana's songs "Maria Maria" and "Smooth." Jim Jones, a native from Harlem, makes reference to the area in his song "Harlem."

The area is also the setting for the J.D. Robb book Salvation in Death, the 27th book in the popular in Death crime series.

Food access

Grocery on 116th St

A lack of access to healthy food causes serious hardships to citizens of Spanish Harlem, a neighborhood considered to be a food desert. According to an April, 2008 report prepared by the New York City Department of City Planning, Spanish Harlem is an area of the city with the highest levels of diet-related diseases due to limited opportunities for citizens to purchase fresh foods[12]. With a high population density and a lack of nearby supermarkets, the neighborhood has little access to fresh fruits and vegetables and a low consumption of fresh foods. Citizens of Spanish Harlem are likely to buy food from discount and convenience stores that have a limited supply of fruits and vegetables, which are often of poor quality and generally more expensive than the same products sold at supermarkets[13]. Supermarkets in Harlem are 30 percent less common, and only 3 percent of local convenience stores in Harlem carry leafy green vegetables as compared to 20 percent on the Upper East Side.[14] Without access to affordable produce and meats, Spanish Harlem residents have difficulty eating a healthy diet, which contributes to high rates of obesity and diabetes[15]

"Residents of ...East and Central Harlem ...are largely limited to fast food restaurants and small bodegas as food sources, which primarily carry packaged foods and have limited fresh produce options. Area residents have also identified the need for more fitness options, particularly for youth and seniors. These inequities have resulted in health disparities and high rates of obesity."[16]

Some local restaurants provide an alternative for those opting to eat out, while maintaining the Caribbean and Latin American “flavor” of the community. SpaHa Café, Camaradas El Barrio, La Fonda Boricua, El Paso Taqueria, Don Pedro’s, East Harlem Café, and Amor Cubano, among others, are popular eating and drinking destinations for residents and visitors alike.

Education

James Fenimore Cooper Elementary School

Spanish Harlem has significantly higher drop-out rates and incidents of violence in its schools.[17] Students must pass through metal detectors and swipe ID cards to enter the buildings. Other problems in local schools include low test scores and high truancy rates. Nevertheless, since 1982, the community has been home to the Manhattan Center for Science and Mathematics.

Among the public charter schools is the Harlem Success Academy and Girls Prep East Harlem is being planned.

Social issues

Social problems associated with poverty from crime to drug addiction have also affected the area for some time. Violent crime remains an obstacle to community security, but crime rates have dropped significantly—around 68% over the past 15 years.[18][19] Though crime is higher in Spanish Harlem than in other neighborhoods in the city, crime's rate of decline is roughly equal to the decline in crime seen in the city's more affluent neighborhoods.[20]

Drug addiction is also a serious problem in the community.[citation needed] While the neighborhood suffers from a high poverty rate, with many persons below the poverty level,[21] its great population density gives the community a strong, aggregate purchasing power.

Union Settlement Association is one of the neighborhood's largest social service agencies, reaching more than 13,000 people annually at 17 locations throughout East Harlem, through a range of programs, including early childhood education, youth development, senior services, job training, the arts, adult education, nutrition, counseling, a farmers' market, community development, and neighborhood cultural events.

Urban renewal

East River Plaza[clarification needed]

After a wave of arson ravaged the low income communities of New York City throughout the 1970s and "planned shrinkage" policies, many of the residential structures in Spanish Harlem were left seriously damaged or destroyed. By the late 1970s, the city began to rehabilitate many abandoned tenement style buildings and designate them low income housing.

From 1996 to 2000, State Assemblyman Nelson Antonio Denis enacted reforms that broke down the "Berlin Wall of Bank Lending" between Spanish Harlem and directly adjacent communities. Through Community Reinvestment Act legislation, public hearings, press conferences, CRA testimony throughout New York State and Washington, D.C., and advocacy on the New York State Assembly Banking Committee, Assemblyman Denis compelled banks to double their lending to home owners and small business persons in East Harlem, the Bronx, and other distressed areas throughout New York State.[22][23]

Assemblyman Denis cemented these gains by invoking the 1975 Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) and conducting a census tract by census tract study, of CRA compliance in the 68th Assembly District and other underserved communities.

Go Green East Harlem! is a collaborative initiative sponsored by Manhattan Borough President Scott Stringer’s Office. Go Green partners include WE ACT, North General Hospital, Mt. Sinai Medical Center, the City Department of Health, Manhattan Community Board 11, State Senator Jose Serrano, and the Little Sisters of the Assumption. Go Green aims to create community sustainability and is working to address six environmental issues in East Harlem: public health and asthma, parks and open space, sustainable business, farmers’ markets and healthy eating, green building, and transportation.[24] Go Green also recently launched a new East Harlem Green Market, open both Saturday and Sunday, to expand community access to healthy, fresh food.

In order to address the issues of healthy food access in East Harlem, the East Harlem Supermarket Task Force was created in April, 2008. Spearheaded by New York Senator José M. Serrano and State Assemblymember Adam C. Powell IV, the task force includes the Coalition Against Hunger, the Department of Health, We Act, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Councilmember Melissa Mark-Viverito, and the United Food and Commercial Workers Local 1500.[25]

Gentrification

In recent years, property values in Spanish Harlem have climbed along with those in the rest of the Manhattan and the metro area. Many people priced out of more affluent sections of the city have begun to look at Spanish Harlem as an up and coming area due to the neighborhood's proximity to Manhattan's core and subway accessibility. With increased market rate housing, including luxury condos and co-ops, there has been a severe decline of affordable housing in the community.[citation needed] White non-Hispanic young professionals have settled in the newly constructed buildings[citation needed]. Fear of a wave of gentrification displacing current low income and long time residents has created tension in the community.

The southern tier of Spanish Harlem has gentrified in recent decades, which has earned it several nicknames, including "SpaHa", "Upper Upper East Side", and "Upper Yorkville".[26]

Land use and terrain

Spanish Harlem is dominated by public housing complexes of various types. There is a high concentration of older tenement buildings between these developments. Newly constructed apartment buildings have been constructed on vacant lots in the area. The neighborhood contains the highest geographical concentration of low income public housing projects in the United States. The total land area is 1.54 square miles (4.0 km2).[27][28]

Low income public housing projects

There are twenty-four NYCHA developments located in Spanish Harlem.[29]

  1. 335 East 111th Street; one, 6-story building.
  2. East 120th Street Rehab; one, 6-story rehabilitated tenement building.
  3. East River Houses; ten buildings, 6, 10 and 11-stories tall.
  4. Edward Corsi Houses; one, 16-story building.
  5. Gaylord White Houses; one, 20-story building.
  6. George Washington Carver Houses; 13 buildings, 6 and 15-stories tall.
  7. Governor Dewitt Clinton Houses; six buildings, 9 and 18-stories tall.
  8. Jackie Robinson Houses; one, 8-story building.
  9. James Weldon Johnson; ten, 14-story buildings.
  10. Lehman Village; four, 20-story buildings.
  11. Lexington Houses; four, 14-story buildings.
  12. Metro North Plaza; three buildings, 7, 8, and 11-stories tall.
  13. Metro North Rehab; seventeen, 6-story rehabilitated tenement buildings.
  14. Milbank-Frawley; two rehabilitated tenement buildings 5 and 6-stories tall.
  15. Morris Park Senior Citizens Home; one, 9-story rehabilitated building.
  16. Park Avenue-East 122nd, 123rd Streets; two, 6-story buildings.
  17. President Abraham Lincoln; fourteen buildings, 6 and 14-stories tall.
  18. President George Washington Houses; fourteen buildings, 12 and 14-stories tall.
  19. President Thomas Jefferson Houses; eighteen buildings, 7, 13 and 14-stories tall.
  20. President Woodrow Wilson Houses; three, 20-story buildings.
  21. Senator Robert A. Taft; nine, 19-story buildings.
  22. Robert F. Wagner Houses; twenty-two buildings, 7 and 16-stories tall.
  23. U.P.A.C.A. (Upper Park Avenue Community Association) Site 6; one, 12-story building.
  24. U.P.A.C.A.. (Upper Park Avenue Community Association) U.R.A. Site 5; one, 11-story building.

Notes

  1. Lee, Denny (2002-07-21). "Neighborhood Report: East Harlem; A 'Museo' Moves Away From Its Barrio Identity". The New York TImes. The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E6DD1E39F932A15754C0A9649C8B63. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  2. Lee, Denny (2002-07-21). "Neighborhood Report: East Harlem; A 'Museo' Moves Away From Its Barrio Identity". The New York TImes. The New York Times Company. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D02E6DD1E39F932A15754C0A9649C8B63. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  3. "NYPD - Precincts -- 23rd Precinct". nyc.gov. NYPD. http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/precincts/precinct_023.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  4. "NYPD - Precincts -- 25th Precinct". nyc.gov. NYPD. http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/precincts/precinct_025.shtml. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  5. "Community District 11 report". cb11m.org. Manhattan Community Board 11. http://www.cb11m.org/files/CommunityDistrict11Report.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Navarro, Mireya, (5/6/03), Smile, You're on Candidate Camera: With an Insider's Eye, a Film Skewers Harlem Politics, The New York Times, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E4DF113CF935A35756C0A9659C8B63
  7. Araujo, Richard, (5/3/03), Comedia Politica desde El Barrio, El Nuevo Dia, http://www.voteforme-themovie.com/articles/elnuevodia.pdf
  8. Vega, Maria, (4/17/03), Un Voto Comprometido con el Cine, El Diario La Prensa, http://www.voteforme-themovie.com/articles/eldiario.pdf
  9. Article on the Charlie Palmieri Memorial Piano Scholarship at Boricua.com
  10. http://www.voteforme-themovie.com/articles/eldiario.pdf
  11. http://www.voteforme-themovie.com/articles/nytimes.pdf
  12. "Going to Market: New York City's Neighborhood Grocery Store and Supermarket Shortage
  13. [ibid.]
  14. NYC.gov
  15. Kimberly Morland, Ana V. Diez Roux, Steve Wing, Supermarkets, Other Food Stores, and Obesity: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Volume 30, Issue 4, April 2006, Pages 333-339.
  16. W.K. Kellogg Foundation: New York City - Food and Fitness
  17. NYC Dropout Rates
  18. 23rd Precinct CompStat Report
  19. 25th Precinct CompStat Report
  20. 9th Precinct CompStat Report
  21. Poverty Concentrations in New York City
  22. Lavan, Rosemary Metzler, (11/17/95),Chase/Chem Face Music at Hearing, New York Daily News, http://www.nydailynews.com/archives/money/1995/11/17/1995-11-17_chase_chem_face_music_at_hea.html
  23. *Harrigan, Susan, (11/17/95), Minority Lending at Issue in Chemical-Chase Merger, New York Newsday
  24. WEACT.org > Programs > Sustainable Development > Go Green East Harlem
  25. The Neighborhood Retail Alliance: East Harlem Supermarket Task Force
  26. Williams, Timothy (2007-01-21). "As East Harlem Develops, Its Accent Starts to Change". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. pp. 1. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/01/21/nyregion/21east.html. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  27. "Manhattan Community Board 11". nyc.gov. New York City Department of Planning. 2007-12. http://www.nyc.gov/html/dcp/pdf/lucds/mn11profile.pdf. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  28. "Census Tract 240". US Census Bureau American Factfinder. US Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/DTTable?_bm=y&-context=dt&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-CONTEXT=dt&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_G001&-tree_id=4001&-transpose=N&-redoLog=false&-all_geo_types=N&-_caller=geoselect&-geo_id=15000US360610240009&-search_results=16000US3474630&-format=&-_lang=en&-show_geoid=Y. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  29. NYCHA

Further reading

  • Araujo, Richard, (5/3/03), Comedia Politica desde El Barrio, El Nuevo Dia, http://www.voteforme-themovie.com/articles/elnuevodia.pdf
  • Bourgois, Philippe. In Search of Respect: Selling Crack in El Barrio. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995 (2002)
  • Cayo-Sexton, Patricia. 1965. Spanish Harlem: An Anatomy of Poverty. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Constantine, Consuela. “Political Economy of Puerto Rico, New York”. The Economist. 28 (1992).
  • Davila, Arlene. Barrio Dreams: Puerto Ricans, Latinos and the Neoliberal City. University of California Press. 2004
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (9/23/99), History still roils Puerto Rico, New York Daily News
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (10/8/95), Justicia Para Julia de Burgos, El Diario La Prensa
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (10/2/95), East Harlem Plea: Have an Art, New York Daily News
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (5/4/95), Giuliani, Pathmark y los Latinos, El Diario La Prensa
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (4/24/95), Beware Primrose Pathmark, New York Daily News
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (4/11/95), Bosses still rule in East Harlem, New York Daily News
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (4/3/95), El Barrio, Liberado y Explotado, El Diario La Prensa
  • Denis, Nelson Antonio. (1977), The Curious Constitution of Puerto Rico, Harvard Political Review
  • Grosfoguel, Ramón (2003). Colonial Subjects: Puerto Ricans in a Global Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press).
  • Heine, Jorge (ed.) (1983). Time for Decision: The United States and Puerto Rico (Lanham, MD: The North-South Publishing Co.).
  • Jennings, James, and Monte Rivera (eds.) (1984). Puerto Rican Politics in Urban America (Westport: Greewood Press).
  • Mencher, Joan. 1989. Growing Up in Eastville, a Barrio of New York. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Moreno Vega, Marta (2004). When the Spirits Dance Mambo: Growing Up Nuyorican in El Barrio (New York: Three Rivers Press).
  • Navarro, Mireya, (5/6/03), Smile, You're on Candidate Camera: With an Insider's Eye, a Film Skewers Harlem Politics, The New York Times, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C02E4DF113CF935A35756C0A9659C8B63
  • Padilla, Elena. 1992. Up From Puerto Rico. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Quiñonez, Ernesto. Bodega Dreams. Random House (Vintage). 2000
  • Salas, Leonardo. "From San Juan to New York: The History of the Puerto Rican". America: History and Life. 31 (1990).
  • Thomas, Piri. Down These Mean Streets. Random House (Vintage). 1967
  • Wakefield, Dan. Island in the City: The World of Spanish Harlem (1959)
  • Zentella, Ana Celia (1997). Growing Up Bilingual: Puerto Rican Children in New York (Blackwell Publishers).

External links

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Coordinates: 40°47′52.64″N 73°56′24.17″W / 40.7979556°N 73.9400472°W / 40.7979556; -73.9400472de:Spanish Harlem es:Harlem Español fr:Spanish Harlem gl:Spanish Harlem it:East Harlem ja:スパニッシュ・ハーレム pt:Spanish Harlem sk:Spanish Harlem sv:Spanish Harlem

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